Most bike safety helmets on the market have a liner made of the same material: expanded polystyrene (EPS), a close cousin of the Styrofoam used in coffee cups and picnic coolers. EPS is light, stable under a wide variety of conditions, durable, and partially puncture-resistant when covered by a thin plastic skin called the shell. Bike safety helmets made of EPS have had little trouble passing the Consumer Product Safety Commission helmet test (upon which the impact portion of the Consumer Reports test is based).

But what about the future of safety helmets? More companies are already producing bike helmets with Multi-­directional Impact Protection System (MIPS) technology, which may have an added benefit in protecting against concussion. One innovation scheduled to hit the market in 2018 is the Angular Impact Mitigation system, which uses a lightweight aluminum honeycomb suspended in the structure of the helmet that, its developer claims, works like the crumple zones in a car to absorb the rotational impacts that can cause concussion.

The miniaturization of electronics could also play a role in the safety helmets of the future. The appropriately named Livall Bling is jam-packed with gadgets, from the fanciful (Bluetooth speakers and wireless turn signals) to the more practical (integrated LED lights and a G-force sensor that can be programmed to use your smartphone to call your designated emergency contact in case of a crash).

Editor's Note: This article also appeared in the August 2016 issue of Consumer Reports magazine.