Most pet owners know that chocolate is one of the most toxic foods for dogs. But according to a new update from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, there are other unexpected foods that can be can be downright deadly for your pup.

“Dogs in general react a little bit differently to diet variation than we do,” says Martine Hartogensis, D.V.M., the deputy director of the Office of Surveillance and Compliance at the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine. Their digestive systems are simply not as well equipped as ours to process and eliminate certain foods, she says. They are used to eating the same commercial dog food every day, which is designed to provide them with all of the nutrients they need. Human food can throw dogs’ systems out of whack, and can cause both mild and serious health problems. Not all people foods are necessarily toxic foods for dogs, and not all dogs react to foods the same way. For instance, small dogs tend to be more sensitive than large ones.

After monitoring complaints and adverse events through the FDA’s Safety Reporting Portal, the agency has identified the top people foods and ingredients that could land your dog a visit to the animal hospital.

1. Alliums

Onions, garlic, and chives—and any foods seasoned with them—are a big no-no for your pooch, as they’ve been associated with a disorder called hemolytic anemia, says Hartogensis, which can damage a dog’s red blood cells. The same goes for spices such as onion and garlic powder, too. If your dog happens to eat any of these alliums, watch out for symptoms of hemolytic anemia: disorientation, fatigue, listlessness, pale gums, and rapid heartbeat. As the disease progresses, they can also develop darkened urine, jaundice, and vomiting.

2. Foods That Have Gone Bad

Some dogs serve as little vacuum cleaners, cleaning up all the crumbs on the floor, but that doesn’t mean they can double as a living compost bin. If a food has mold or you think it has otherwise spoiled, don’t feed it to your dog. And take care to keep trash cans and compost bins in a place where the dog can’t get into them.  

3. Fried or Fatty Foods

Foods that are overly fatty, such as fried chicken, are very toxic foods for dogs, says Hartogensis. If they eat enough, their pancreases can become inflamed. causing those organs to produce enzymes that can severely damage your pet’s intestines. This can be life-threatening, says Hartogensis: “It’s really scary to watch a dog come in with pancreatitis because they’re just vomiting like crazy.” 

4. Grapes

Scientists aren’t sure exactly why grapes are one of the most toxic foods for dogs, or which compound in them makes dogs so sick, says Hartogensis, but there’s been a well-established association between grapes and acute kidney failure in some pups. This includes currants and raisins, which can deliver an even stronger toxic punch than a grape, because the fruits are dried and therefore the compounds are more concentrated than they are in grapes. If your pooch sneaks a grape while you’re not looking, even if it’s just one, watch for signs of kidney failure, which can initially include diarrhea and vomiting, and then abdominal pain, dehydration, lethargy, low urine output, and weakness, according to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. The smaller the dog, the fewer grapes it will take to make them sick. 

5. Macadamia Nuts

Dogs seem to be the only species that can’t tolerate macadamia nuts, says Hartogensis: “Nobody has really figured out the toxic principle here.” A dog would have to eat a fair amount of macadamia nuts to get sick, Hartogensis says, but if they do, they can get depression, fever, muscle weakness, and vomiting. Pet owners should keep their dogs away from all nuts in general, Hartogensis says, but especially keep an eye on macadamia nuts. 

6. Raw Meat

You wouldn’t stick a piece of raw meat into your mouth, so why would you feed it to your dog? Uncooked meats can harbor potentially deadly bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella, which can wreak havoc on the digestive system. While dogs are typically less prone to infections from bacteria like these than humans are, the bacteria can still make them sick, says Hartogensis. After working with raw meat, avoid potentially contaminating your dog’s food and treats by washing your hands thoroughly before dipping your fingers into their bone bag. 

7. Salty Snacks

In large amounts, foods containing excess salt can cause sodium ion poisoning in dogs, leading to depression, diarrhea, high fever, excessive thirst, kidney damage, seizures, and vomiting, says Hartogensis: “It’s almost like they get drunk,” she says. A potato chip or a pretzel probably won’t do much damage, but a whole bag might, according to the FDA. Make sure your dog has enough water at all times, especially if they’ve dipped into some salty snacks. 

8. Xylitol

More and more, manufacturers are adding this low-calorie sugar substitute to processed foods and other products such as baked goods, breath mints, gums, mouthwashes, toothpastes, and more. Dog owners may not know that even just a little bit of the sweetener can cause a rapid spike in their insulin levels, which could cause their blood sugar to plummet to dangerous lows. “Even just a few pieces of gum can be pretty toxic,” says Hartogensis. Small dogs are especially vulnerable since the effects are dose-dependent. Symptoms of xylitol poisoning initially include vomiting, and can later progress to fainting, seizures, staggering, and weakness. 

What about our feline friends? Cats can similarly be sensitive to certain foods, such as alliums, but according to the FDA, they are pickier eaters than dogs, and are less likely to eat something that will make them sick.

If you think your pet has been poisoned, first take the food away so that he or she doesn’t eat any more of it, says Hartogensis. Then you should call your veterinarian. If a vet is not available, you can contact the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (888-426-4435).The ASPCA might charge a consultation fee.