Digital cameras

Digital camera buying guide

Last updated: September 2015

Getting started

Buying a digital camera can be disorienting. There are hundreds of cameras available at many different types of retail outlets, with prices ranging from $75 to several thousand dollars.

Some cameras are small and light enough to carry in a shirt pocket, while others weigh a couple of pounds. The level of complexity varies, as well. To use all the capabilities of full-featured cameras you need to devote time to playing with settings and reading the manual. And almost every camera is advertised using abbreviations that can be cryptic and confusing for the novice.

In this digital camera guide, we aim to help you overcome this confusion.

How do modern cameras work?

Before we dive into shopping advice, here's a very quick rundown on digital camera technology—it should help you make sense of your choices.

Both digital and film cameras collect light from a scene or subject and focus it on a medium that captures the image. Traditional cameras capture the image through a chemical reaction that takes place on the film. Digital cameras rely instead on an image sensor that reacts to light by sending out electrical signals.

Should I care about megapixels?

A digital camera stores the information from its image sensor as a collection of thousands of pixels, or tiny dots, in a digital file. (The file normally resides on a memory card inside the camera.) A collection of a million pixels is called a megapixel, and megapixel counts are often used as a camera spec. For instance, a 16-megapixel camera is one that captures 16 million pixels in every image. People shopping for cameras often want as many megapixels as they can afford because the number is widely referenced in ads, on camera packaging, and in reviews.

The megapixel count matters most for people who want to produce big prints. For example, a 6-megapixel camera may be fine for printing high-quality snapshots, but if you want to print poster-size images (or crop a shot severely, printing a small corner of the original image at 4x6 inches), you'll do better with 16 or more megapixels.

But don't get sucked into megapixel comparisons. Other factors are at least as important. The quality of the lenses will have a great effect on what kind of images you capture. And the size of the sensor matters, as well. A bigger sensor will capture more detail than a smaller one, even if they both record the same number of megapixels. Finally, settings and ergonomics may matter just as much in determining how much you enjoy a camera.

Types of digital cameras

Our digital camera Ratings are divided into six categories: point-and-shoots, superzoom point-and-shoots, waterproof point-and-shoots, advanced point-and-shoots, mirrorless cameras, and SLRs. All point-and-shoots, whether basic or advanced, are defined as having their lenses built into the camera—they can't be switched out. Mirrorless cameras and SLRs have interchangeable lenses.

Next steps

After you consider the type of camera you want and the number of megapixels you need, but before you dive into specific models, you can check out our brand profiles, which outline many of the most popular camera product lines and their respective character traits.

Next, look to our Ratings and Recommendations for the models that have the best performance and image quality. And if you're planning to shoot video with the camera, consider the video quality score. Finally, to see which models respond the quickest when you depress the shutter button, consider the ease-of-use score, which includes start-up time and shutter delay for the first and subsequent shots. You can also use the Ratings charts to learn about specific features, such as the quality of the LCDs on various point-and-shoots.

What you'll spend

In general, you can expect to pay the following for each type of camera.

  • For point-and-shoots, expect to spend $100 to $450.
  • For superzoom point-and-shoots, expect to spend $150 to $400.
  • For waterproof point-and-shoots, expect to spend $100 to $350.
  • For advanced point-and-shoots, expect to spend $350 to $1,500.
  • For mirrorless cameras, expect to spend $300 to $2,700.
  • For SLRs, expect to spend $500 to more than $3,000.

When you're ready to buy, consider where you will make your purchase. Although some walk-in stores, such as photo-specialty camera shops, have knowledgeable salespeople, many other retailers do not. So do your own research before buying. Also, if you decide to purchase at a traditional retail store, forgo the extended warranty—digital cameras have been among the most reliable products in our surveys.

Many respondents in our surveys found online shopping to be a more satisfying shopping experience than walk-in-store shopping. But be cautious of very low prices and verify that the camera isn't refurbished or a product of the gray market (diverted from other retailers or not meant for sale in the U.S.).

For more helpful advice, check out our guide to the best places to buy electronics and our digital camera shopping tips.


In our Ratings, we divide models into six types: point-and-shoots, superzoom point-and-shoots, waterproof point-and-shoots, advanced point-and-shoots, mirrorless cameras, and SLRs.

Most of these models fit into a pocket and weigh just a few ounces. Some are larger, too big for pockets but small enough for handbags. Most basic point-and-shoots don't have manual controls, but some do include touchscreens and Wi-Fi. Zoom lenses can be as long as 23x optical.

Superzoom cameras are characterized by a very long zoom range—24x or greater, which is good for sports, travel, or nature shooting. They're generally bulkier and heavier than compacts and subcompacts. Some models have zooms as great as 63x.

These cameras have a nondetachable lens but differ from basic models in that they have lots of manual controls, a hot shoe for an external flash, and support for RAW files. They are the lightest advanced cameras.

These models resist moisture and withstand falls. Most have non-telescoping lenses that range between 3x and 5x optical zoom. Most also include GPS features.

Mirrorless camera models accept interchangeable lenses and have large sensors for enhanced image quality in low light, but they lack a through-the-lens viewfinder. They're smaller and lighter than an SLR but are usually larger than a point-and-shoot. Some mirrorless models include full-frame sensors, which are the size of one frame of 35mm film and significantly larger than sensors found in point-and-shoot digital cameras. One benefit is that these full-frame models allow the camera to handle a wider variety of lighting situations more accurately. They also limit the amount of visual noise that can distort and degrade an image.

SLR cameras have the most features. Like mirrorless models, they accept interchangeable lenses and have large sensors for the best image quality in low light. They also include a through-the lens viewfinder. Controls are extensive. However, they are heavier than other types of camera. Like some mirrorless models, a number of SLRs are built with full-frame sensors.


Digital camera features vary greatly from model to model. Some might be essential to you, while others might be of use only for highly specialized applications. Before you buy, consider the following features.

Exposure modes

Most digital cameras, including SLRs, are highly automated, with features such as automatic exposure control, which manages the shutter speed and aperture according to the available light. In that mode, the camera generally handles setting ISO and autofocus, too.

But there are other program modes that allow you to control specific settings, including shutter priority, aperture priority, and special scene modes.

Some cameras include full manual controls, which let you set shutter speed and aperture.

Zoom lenses

This type of lens, which is actually made up of several different lenses or lens elements, allows you to vary the focal length. That provides you with flexibility in framing shots and closes the distance between you and your subject, which is ideal if you want to quickly switch to a close shot.

The 3x zoom found on some mainstream cameras goes from a moderately wide-angle view (35mm) to moderate telephoto (105mm). You can find cameras with extended zoom ranges between 5x and 60x, giving you added versatility.

If you want a greater viewing angle for more panoramic landscapes or group portraits, look for cameras with a wide-angle end of the zoom range as low as 28 or 24mm.

One common feature of zoom lenses is that they generally protrude from the camera when you turn it on. But some basic models, such as waterproof point-and-shoot cameras, have nontelescoping lenses.

On larger point-and-shoots, you might also find a manual focus ring similar to the one on an SLR lens, although manual focusing on a point-and-shoot works differently than on an SLR.

Optical zooms are much better than digital zooms, which merely magnify the center of the frame without actually increasing picture detail.

Almost all point-and-shoot digital cameras include zoom lenses. Mirrorless models and SLRs, which can use interchangeable lenses, often ship with a zoom lens, but also accept prime—or nonzoom—lenses.

Image stabilization

Nearly all cameras, including many with powerful lenses, now come with an image stabilizer (IS), a device that compensates for handheld camera shake.

Often, the IS device lets you shoot with a slower shutter speed than you otherwise could without producing blur due to hand shake. Optical (in the lens) and mechanical (in the camera body) image stabilizers are the best types to use, although some cameras include simulated image stabilization.

In interchangeable-lens cameras, like SLRs, some brands include mechanical stabilizers, which can use IS with every lens. But some SLR brands only include optical IS in telephoto or long zoom lenses, which are the lenses that need it most. (Optical-based IS generally produces better results than mechanical-based IS.)

Image stabilization is a feature you should look for, especially if the camera has an optical zoom greater than 3x.

Face detection & ‘Smart Camera' features

Cameras with this feature can attempt to find a face in the image to use for setting focus, exposure, and color balance. When we've tried it, we found that this feature usually worked well.

In some cameras, you have to turn on the feature. In others, it's enabled at the factory, but can be turned off.

Other variants on face detection are beginning to appear in newer cameras, such as a smile shutter mode, which shoots a photo of the subject when a subject smiles. Other versions include blink warning, which alerts you to shots in which a subject may have blinked, and intelligent ISO, which changes the ISO (and shutter speed) according to the subject's movement to avoid blurry shots.


In addition to being able to automatically set exposure, digital cameras automatically adjust the focus of the lens with autofocus (AF) features. But more advanced cameras include additional focusing functions.

Be sure to look carefully at the types of additional features available on your camera, including manual focus.

On advanced cameras, like SLRs, look for the number of AF points they have and what types of AF modes are available. For instance, dynamic AF groups focus points into a field to more accurately track moving subjects.

Shooting modes

Most cameras have three options for shooting still images: single image, burst mode, and self-timer.

The burst mode allows you fire off a series of shots quickly, for several, dozens, and sometimes scores of shots. Some advanced models can shoot more than a hundred shots in a burst, and do so very quickly (as expressed in frames per second, or fps). Some newer advanced point-and-shoots are also able to capture many shots per second.

As the name implies, the self-timer mode provides a delay between the moment the shutter button is pressed and the photo is captured. Some cameras let you set the length of the delay and the number of shots you can take.

Playback modes

All digital cameras can review images on the LCD, along with exposure and other information embedded in the image file. So, you can quickly see what the image actually looks like, and delete it if you don't like it.

Many cameras have automatic orientation features that turn the photo vertically or horizontally to correspond to how you shot the photo. When reviewing, you can use the zoom control to magnify portions of the image file.

The LCD screen is also where you access the camera's menu system to adjust settings and access features. Some digital cameras include either touch-screen LCDs or LCDs that swivel. The best LCDs don't change in color or tone (often called solarizing) when viewed at an angle.

A number of camera models include slideshow features, and some even let you play music or create a multimedia slideshow.


This setting expresses how sensitive the sensor is to light—the higher the number, the greater the sensitivity.

Many cameras allow you to set various ISO settings (anywhere from ISO 100 to ISO 12,800 or even higher). The advantage in being able to set a higher ISO is that you can then have more flexibility in adjusting either the aperture or shutter speed.

For example, if you need to shoot an image at 1/250 of a second in order to "freeze" the action, but you have only enough light for a shutter speed of a 1/125 of a second, one option is to change the aperture to let more light in. But if you're already at the widest aperture, you can instead increase the ISO from 100 ISO to 400 ISO, and then set the higher shutter speed.

But ISO settings can be tricky. High-ISO images shot with point-and-shoot cameras, which have smaller sensors than SLRs, often suffer from image noise—the photos look grainy and distorted. Even though point-and-shoots include ISOs up to 6400 or higher, you may be disappointed in the results.

Along similar lines, there is also a relationship between megapixel count and sensor size. The more megapixels manufacturers cram onto the same-size sensor, the more visual flaws may appear in the images.

LCD viewers/viewfinder

Although optical viewfinders were once ubiquitous on cameras, hardly any basic point-and-shoots include them anymore. They've been replaced by larger, sharper color LCDs—some of them larger than 3.5 inches. These displays are accurate in framing the actual image you get, but they might be hard to see in bright sunlight.

Some cameras also come with touchscreen LCDs, similar to screens found on smart phones and tablets. And select point-and-shoots and advanced models include swiveling displays, which are helpful for taking hard-to-reach shots and selfies.

In addition to an LCD, most advanced cameras have one of three types of viewfinders: optical (a glass element found on advanced point-and-shoots), electronic (mostly found on mirrorless models) or through-the-lens (found on all SLRs).

Although these viewfinders differ from each other, they all let you more easily shoot in bright light and conserve battery power. Some cameras use an OLED (organic light-emitting diode) electronic viewfinder. Unlike an LCD viewer, this type works without a backlight, so it can produce deeper blacks.


Available on almost every digital camera, a flash (or strobe) allows you to illuminate subjects by using a short burst of light.

Nearly all have auto-flash modes, a setting that will automatically fire a flash whenever the camera senses there isn't enough illumination for a correct exposure.

Most include other flash modes, including red-eye reduction mode, which minimizes a common flash camera problem (although you can also fix this in an image-editing program once the image is stored on your computer).

There are two primary types of flashes associated with consumer-level cameras. A built-in (onboard or, in some cases, pop-up) strobe is generally positioned directly or diagonally above the lens. An external strobe, sold separately as an accessory, fits into a camera's hot shoe, which lets you attach this accessory on to an advanced point-and-shoot, mirrorless model, or SLR.

Many include a number of flash modes that allow you to alter the type of flash or the strength of the illumination.

Image file formats

The most commonly used file format is the JPEG, a compressed image format that is easy to email and embed in Web pages.

Advanced point-and-shoots, mirrorless models, or SLRs can also capture images in a file format commonly known as RAW. This format is most often uncompressed and the image isn't processed inside the camera, as with JPEG files.

RAW files can yield the best quality images and give you the most flexibility when manipulating the photos with software, but they take up much more space.

Memory cards

Instead of film, nearly all digital cameras record their shots and store them on flash-memory cards, although occasional models also have had onboard flash-memory capacities greater than 1 GB.

SecureDigital (SD) is the most widely used format. Other memory cards used include Compact Flash (CF), mostly on SLRs, and Memory Stick Duo.

Some cameras store photos on microSD memory cards, which are often used in smart phones.

Although storage cards were once quite expensive, they have recently dropped significantly in price.

New cameras can also accept special, higher capacity versions of SD cards, such as SDHC and the latest, SDXC, a format that allows memory-card manufacturers to produce cards with capacities as high as 2 terabytes.


To save images, you transfer them to a computer, typically by connecting the camera to the computer's USB port, or inserting the memory card into a special reader. (Many computers now have built-in card readers.)

Cameras can also be connected to printers, or you can insert the memory cards directly into select printers. Both options allow you to print photos without the need to transfer them to a computer.

Most cameras also include a video output that lets you view images on your TV. Some even include an HDMI output (on the camera body or camera dock) that can be attached to an HDTV. But the cords and docks might cost extra.

As digital cameras face increased competition from smart phones with improved camera optics, expect more digital cameras to offer wireless Internet connectivity, which lets you transfer images to the Web through a Wi-Fi router, via a smart phone, or both.


Nearly all cameras include HD-resolution video, and a number can now capture video in a higher-resolution setting: 4K HD video. However, you'll need an ultra HDTV to see the enhanced detail.

Some models with HD-video quality, particularly advanced cameras, are good enough to let even avid videographers avoid the cost and inconvenience of a separate camcorder. One convenient video feature many cameras now include is a dedicated video button, which lets you quickly record video while you're shooting still images.

If you're buying a basic or advanced point-and-shoot, check to see whether the camera can zoom while capturing video. Not all models can. And if you plan to shoot a lot of video with your digital camera, consider buying a large-capacity memory card (16 or 32GBs), since video clips tend to fill up memory cards more quickly than still photos do.

3D capability

Some cameras can capture 3D photos or 3D video, or both.

In order to do this, the camera may capture two different images (or use software to create them), representing the different perspectives of the left and right eye. Your brain combines the two images into one seamless 3D image when you wear special glasses, which are capable of presenting each eye with its own separate view, or when you view them on a special 3D LCD.

Projecting point-and-shoots

A feature shared byjust a few models in our Ratings is a tiny built-in projector, often called a pico projector, that can project an image or video onto just about any flat surface.

Onscreen help

Some cameras take hand-holding to the next level with onscreen tutorials. These are often nicely designed, with text accompanied by simple graphics and photos.

We've seen basic shooting techniques covered, as well as tips specific to portraits, landscapes, close-ups, and action shots. And some tutorials cover specialized features, such as modes for shooting panorama or in High Dynamic Range (HDR).


Although they are still in the minority, the number of cameras with Wi-Fi capability is growing.

These wireless features can be found on both advanced and basic cameras and let you wirelessly transfer photos or video to your computer, quickly back them up on a hard drive, or upload them to a smartphone for sharing to a social networking website.

Some cameras also include NFC (near-field communication), which makes connecting to mobile devices quick and easy.


Canon arrow  |  Fujifilm arrow  |  Kodak arrow  |  Leica arrow  |  Nikon arrow  |  Olympus arrow  |  Panasonic arrow  |  Pentax / Ricoh arrow  |  Samsung arrow  |  Sigma arrow  |  Sony arrow

These are the major camera brands. Most have several product lines. If you don't see a model in our Ratings (available to subscribers), these profiles can help you learn about the manufacturer's lineup.


Canon is the market leader in point-and-shoots, with an extensive line of models, which are known as PowerShots. Its compact camera line includes several different series.

The A series comprises budget point-and-shoots while the ELPH series adds more creative features and advanced functions.

Its N series provides an even larger number of features including Wi-Fi and photo-sharing. Canon’s D series cameras claim to be waterproof and shockproof.

Its SX series are mostly superzooms and come in various sizes and include smaller or larger feature sets.

Its high-end series, the S and G lines, include special modes and manual features, such as the ability to shoot RAW files and to focus manually.

The EOS Rebel series helped to define budget SLRs. Other SLRs include a host of pro and more-advanced consumer models, including models that have large, full-frame sensors. Canon also offers a wider selection of lenses than most brands.


The budget compact FinePix J and A series are the lowest priced Fujifilm cameras.

Fujifilm claims that the FinePix XP series is waterproof.

Its superzoom models are generally seen in the FinePix F and S series.

The FinePix HS EXR model includes special modes that let the sensor adapt to the subject you're shooting.

The X series cameras include advanced point-and-shoot and mirrorless models.

Fujifilm does not offer SLRs.


A company called JK Imaging holds an exclusive licensing agreement with Kodak to produce cameras under the Kodak PIXPRO name.

The brand's FZ series includes some of the least-expensive point-and-shoots available.

The AZ series consists of slightly higher-priced superzooms.

The Kodak PIXPRO unusual “Smart Lens” is designed to clip onto smart phones.


This innovative company produces cameras that serve a niche audience, mostly due to the cameras' high prices.

Most of Leica's point-and-shoot cameras (C, D-LUX, and V-LUX series) are essentially the same models produced under the Panasonic brand, although the Leica versions are more expensive.

Leica has a high-end, very expensive X-series advanced point-and-shoot that includes a large APS-C sized sensor, similar to those found on SLRs, although it has a fixed lens instead of using interchangeable lenses.

Leica's most celebrated line is its very expensive M series of digital rangefinder cameras, which has a small but very loyal following of photographers.

The T series is the first advanced point-and-shoot from Leica to feature an integrated Wi-Fi module.


Nikon has a fairly extensive line of point-and-shoot models, known as Coolpix cameras.

Its compacts and superzooms are divided into four series, the budget L, step-up S, high-end P series, and AW series, which Nikon claims is waterproof and shockproof.

Nikon also has an innovative S series camera.

Nikon also offers a line of advanced point-and-shoots.

Like Canon's SLR lineup, Nikon's D series offers cameras for every SLR user and budget and a wide range of lenses. High-end SLRs include large, full-frame sensors, which offer better quality in low light.

Nikon also offers a new mirrorless series, the Nikon One, which has large sensors and accepts interchangeable lenses but has no through-the-lens viewfinder.

Nikon offers an optional wireless mobile adapter for use with many of its high-end cameras while several of its Coolpix models have Wi-Fi built-in.


Olympus budget series compacts emphasize simple operation.

Other model lines include its high-end SP superzoom models and select "Tough" waterproof cameras, which are also rugged.

Olympus's Pen series models are based on micro four-thirds sensor technology. This mirrorless type of camera combines key SLR features—a large image sensor and interchangeable lenses—with the smaller size and weight of a point-and-shoot.

Olympus no longer produces SLRs, but continues to offers wide range of lenses for its mirrorless camera line.


Every Panasonic Lumix, from pricey superzooms to budget models, has optical stabilization.

Many models offer great value when they combine optical image stabilization with innovations such as intelligent ISO, which automatically raises the camera sensor's sensitivity when it detects motion, allowing faster shutter speed.

Panasonic, a pioneer in mirrorless cameras, has several G-series Lumix models that are based on micro four-thirds sensor technology. This type of mirrorless camera combines key SLR features—a large image sensor and interchangeable lenses—with the smaller size and weight of a point-and-shoot.

Some of its recent models are capable of shooting 4K video.

Panasonic offers built-in Wi-Fi in many of its models.

Pentax / Ricoh

Ricoh, Pentax’s parent company, has had a long tradition of producing high-quality SLRs. Its most recent K series SLRs are competitively priced and include some unique features such as High Dynamic Range (HDR). Pentax also offers a line of SLR lenses.

Pentax also offers some mirrorless models in its Q series and the X superzooms, which include models with relatively long zoom lenses.

Pentax no longer produces compact or waterproof point-and-shoots under this brand. But those point-and-shoots have been rebranded as Ricoh cameras, and include a waterproof W series.


Samsung has produced some very inexpensive compact digital cameras and some innovative models. Many Samsung models include Wi-Fi.

Its WB series covers compact point-and-shoot models and the superzoom category.

Its Galaxy line are compacts that have photo-sharing capabilities.

The company has introduced some mirrorless cameras similar to micro four-thirds models, but with a larger, APS-C sensor. The NX-series camera includes key SLR features, including interchangeable lenses. The size of NX models vary: Some are similar to an SLR and others are small and light like a point-and-shoot.

New features include 4K video and NFC.


This company is primarily a lens manufacturer, offering third-party interchangeable lenses for most of the major SLR camera lines that are often less expensive than those from the SLR camera manufacturers.

But Sigma also produces select cameras, including an SD series SLR and several high-end DP series compacts, which capture images on uniquely designed Foveon sensors.


Sony offers innovations at relatively high prices. Cyber-shot compacts offer distinctions such as touch screen LCDs and sleek bodies. Some larger models include very long optical zooms.

The W series is a budget line and T series cameras are waterproof.

High-end H series superzoom point-and-shoots are available with and without Wi-Fi.

Most RX-series cameras are advanced point-and-shoots that fit in a pocket, and have high-end SLR features. Some of these RX-series models include Wi-Fi.

Sony has expanded its mirrorless Alpha series significantly and offers cameras for every advanced camera user and budget, including models that have very large, full-frame sensors and special features, such as High Dynamic Range (HDR). The series also has a wide range of lenses.

Its wireless Cyber-shot QX series are portable "camera units" that clip onto—and are meant to be used wirelessly with—your smart phone.

Shopping tips

Beware the sales pitch

You can't always depend on sales staff to help you to choose the right camera. Consumer Reports readers indicate that the quality of in-store help is all over the map.

At mass merchandisers, our reporters have been told, erroneously, that there was no difference between digital and optical zoom (optical is far more useful) and that there were few quality differences among mechanical, optical, and simulated image stabilization (optical and mechanical are superior).

One thing to watch for is a salesperson pushing you to buy an expensive camera with a high megapixel count. Ten megapixels is all the resolution many people need. (However, if you drastically crop or enlarge your images, consider a higher megapixel camera.)

Shop by brand

Before diving into specific models, consider some characteristics by brand, culled from our years of digital-camera tests.

For example, Fujifilm offers image sensors with proprietary technology that produce high image quality at high ISO settings.

Canon, Nikon, and Olympus offer full lineups for every type of user.

Samsung offers cameras with high styling and multimedia features.

Panasonic uses image stabilizers and Leica lenses throughout its line.

Sony often uses Zeiss lenses, a brand well known in the camera world.

Try it out

The smallest, lightest models aren't necessarily low-quality cameras. And the biggest and heaviest aren't necessarily found at the high end. If possible, try cameras at a store before you buy. That way, you'll know which one fits your hands best. In our tests, some of the smallest didn't leave much room even for small fingers.

Keep your other cameras in mind

If you own a film camera with interchangeable lenses, you can often use the lenses on digital SLRs of the same brand. But there are exceptions. For example, some new Nikon bodies only operate autofocus on the company's AF-S or AF-I lenses.

Forgo the extended warranty

Overall, digital cameras have been among the most reliable products in our subscriber surveys. Only about 5 percent of those bought from 2010 through 2014 have been repaired or had a serious problem. That means it probably doesn't pay for you to buy an extended warranty.

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