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GREEN CHOICE

Tesla Model S Change Vehicle

The Tesla Model S is so revolutionary and advanced, it's like a car from another planet. That planet happens to be Silicon Valley, where this startup automaker has its headquarters and is run by the same CEO as Space X, the space exploration company with visions of flying to Mars. The Model S requires no excuses -- electric car or not.
Alerts
There are 4 recalls on this vehicle. Learn More.

Road Test Results

Performance
Acceleration Acceleration Acceleration tests are conducted on a smooth, flat pavement straightaway at the track. Time, speed, and distance measurements are taken with a precise GPS-based device that’s hooked to a data-logging computer.
0 to 60 mph 0 to 60 mph (sec.) The time in seconds that a vehicle takes to reach 60 mph from a standstill with the engine idling.
Transmission Transmission Transmission performance is determined by shifting smoothness, response, shifter action, and clutch actuation for manual transmissions.
Braking Braking The braking rating is a composite of wet and dry stopping distances and pedal feel. Braking distance is from 60 mph, with no wheels locked.
Emergency Handling Emergency Handling Several factors go into the rating, including the avoidance maneuver speed and confidence, as well as how the vehicle behaves when pushed to its limit.
Comfort / Convenience
Ride Ride Our expert judgment of how well the suspension isolates and absorbs road imperfections and how steady it keeps the body on various road surfaces.
Noise Noise Our expert judgment of the vehicle's interior noise level in everyday driving.
Front Seat Comfort Front Seat Comfort Our judgment of how comfortable the front seat is for drivers of various heights.
Rear Seat Comfort Rear Seat Comfort Our judgment of how comfortable the rear seat is for two passengers to sit across.
Interior Fit and Finish Interior Fit and Finish An expert evaluation of the interior quality and craftsmanship.
Trunk/Cargo Area Trunk/Cargo Area Our rating is based on the amount of luggage or cargo space that a vehicle has in the trunk or cargo area.
Fuel Economy & Emissions
Fuel Economy Fuel Economy We perform our own fuel-economy tests, independent of the government's often-quoted EPA figures and the manufacturers' claims. Using a precise fuel-flow measuring device spliced into the fuel line, we run two separate circuits to represent city and highway consumption.
CR's Overall Mileage CR's Overall Mileage CR's overall mileage is a composite of measured fuel usage on a prescribed city course and highway cruising; and CR's 150-mile test trip of mixed driving, if tested. In recent road tests, we've discontinued the 150-mile trip test.
CR's City Mileage CR's City Mileage Measured fuel usage on a prescribed city course.
CR's Highway Mileage CR's Highway Mileage Measured fuel usage on a prescribed highway cruising.
Annual Fuel Cost Annual Fuel Cost The cost and amount of fuel used in 12,000 miles and is calculated from CR's overall mileage.
Greenhouse Gas Greenhouse Gas The Greenhouse Gas Rating represents the amount of carbon dioxide the vehicle emits compared to other vehicles of the same model year. This score from the EPA ranges from 1 (worst) to 10 (best).
Smog Rating Smog Rating The Smog Rating represents the amount of health-damaging and smog-forming airborne pollutants the vehicle emits compared to other vehicles of the same model year. This score from the EPA ranges from 1 (worst) to 10 (best).

Owner Reports

Worse Better
Reliability History Reliability History The reliability charts are based on responses on hundreds of thousands of vehicles from our latest Annual Auto Survey. Consumer Reports subscribers reported on any serious problems they had with their vehicles during the past 12 months that they considered serious because of cost, failure, safety, or downtime, in any of the trouble spots included in the table below. The results are presented relative to the average model that year. Extra weight is given to the more serious areas such as major engine or transmission problems. Based on this data and further analysis, we predict reliability for the latest year. N/A indicates that we did not receive a large enough sample size to provide data for a specific year. An X indicates that the vehicle was not manufactured for a specific year.
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
NA
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Reliability Trouble Spots
Engine Major Engine Major Engine rebuild or replacement, cylinder head, head gasket, turbo or supercharger, timing chain or timing belt.
NA
Engine Minor Engine Minor Accessory belts and pulleys, engine computer, engine mounts, engine knock or ping, oil leaks.
NA
Engine Cooling Engine Cooling Radiator, cooling fan, antifreeze leaks, water pump, thermostat, overheating.
NA
Transmission Major Transmission Major Transmission rebuild or replacement, torque converter, clutch replacement.
NA
Transmission Minor Transmission Minor Gear selector or linkage, leaks, transmission computer, transmission sensor or solenoid, clutch adjustment, rough shifting, slipping transmission.
NA
Drive System Drive System Driveshaft or axle, CV joint, differential, transfer case, 4WD/AWD components, driveline vibration, traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), electrical failure.
NA
Owner Satisfaction Owner Satisfaction To learn about satisfaction, CR has collected survey data from our annual survey on more than half a million vehicles. Our subscribers provide great insights into their satisfaction by answering one simple question: If they had it to do all over again, would they definitely buy or lease the same model? In addition, respondents also rate their cars in six categories: driving experience, comfort, value, styling, audio, and climate systems. N/A indicates that we did not receive a large enough sample size to provide data for a specific year. An X indicates that the vehicle was not manufactured for a specific year.
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
NA
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Driving Experience Driving Experience Includes acceleration and handling
Comfort Comfort Includes seats, climate control, noise, and ride
Value Value Did you get what you wanted relative to the price you paid?
Styling Styling How it looks inside and out
Safety Equipment
ABS and ESC standard. Side and head protection air bags standard.
Road Test

The Tesla Model S is so revolutionary and advanced, it's like a car from another planet. That planet happens to be Silicon Valley, where this startup automaker has its headquarters and is run by the same CEO as Space X, the space exploration company with visions of flying to Mars.

The Model S requires no excuses -- electric car or not. That's why the Model S is the best-scoring car that we've ever tested, with the high-performance P85D variant scoring even higher.

Seating
2 front, 3 rear, 2 third
Drive Wheels
AWD , Rear
Warranty
Coverage varies among versions of this vehicle

In most cases, automotive warranties are based on the vehicle identification number (VIN), and the warranty will be valid regardless of ownership. The dealership can tell you exactly how much warranty is left.

Read more about extended warranties
Body Styles
sedan
Transmissions Available
  • 1-speed Direct
Engines Available
  • electric (463 hp)
  • electric (315 hp)
  • electric (417 hp)
  • electric (532 hp)
  • electric (328 hp)

Owner Reported Trouble Spots

The Reliability score is based on our latest subscriber survey of 2016 Tesla Model S owners. The owner comments describe problems respondents experienced with this vehicle.

In-car Electronics

CD or DVD players, radio, speakers, GPS, communication system (e.g., OnStar), display screen freezes or goes blank, phone pairing (e.g. Bluetooth), voice control commands, steering wheel controls, portable music device interface (e.g., iPod/MP3 player), backup or other camera/sensors.

What Owners Say

Backup or other camera/sensors

"Main Autopilot camera had issues with calibration and was replaced"

S T., VA (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)

"Front camera was malfunctioning. It was replaced as a warranty item"

Anonymous, IN (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)

"Forward camera for auto pilot system. Tesla replaced free. Gave us a loner car. Love Tesla and love my model s"

Anonymous, NC (2016 Tesla Model S 85D Electric)
Display screen freezes up

"Like all computers, you can reboot the Tesla and restore electronics to default values."

Anonymous, FL (2016 Tesla Model S 60D Electric)

"About 1 or 2 times per month I have to reboot the display system. The car can be driven, but many of the electronic features don't work until I reboot the system, which takes 2- 4 minutes. The computer was replaced and that reduced the frequency of the problem to a manageable amount."

Anonymous, NY (2016 Tesla Model S 60D Electric)
Display screen goes blank

"The large central display screen went blank and had to be replaced. The car and its essential features continued to function without the screen"

Anonymous, CO (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)

"The main display screen went blank or locked up (I don't remember which). Rebooting the screen didn't work. The car drove fine otherwise though there were features that couldn't be accessed while in this condition. Brought the car to Tesla service the same day, they gave me a loaner car (model X) and it was fixed the next day (under warranty)."

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
External music device interface (e.g., smart phone, MP3 player)

"MP3 player freezes at random and is incapable of actually shuffling. Repeats same ~200 songs out 5000+ on a usb drive"

Anonymous, TX (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"most of my music listening comes from a memory stick that I copy from CD's that I copied to my laptop. The car music system is designed to use a memory stick as a music source. The problem is that once it starts playing, it often has trouble reading the next song or two, even if it has successfully read the songs before. The Tesla service tech didn't understand the problem when I described it on the phone."

Anonymous, NY (2016 Tesla Model S 60D Electric)

"How difficult is it to shuffle all the songs on a usb stick? Apparently very hard for Tesla. This bug has been there since shuffle was introduced in 2014. They know about and keep saying they will fix but they have not."

Richard L., TX (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Hardware replacement

"Screen went blank causing other functions to stop working. Car still at Tesla dealership waiting to be fixed. Took over 1 month to get appointment. New screen/computer still not in."

Anonymous, (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
In-dash navigation system (GPS)

"GPS made serious in driving directions 1 - failed to find the bridge I drove over. 2 - indicated restaurant I wanted to reach was 19 miles further than actually was"

Anonymous, (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Phone pairing (e.g., Bluetooth)

"Problem remains unsolved. With no apparent pattern, caller can not hear me nor can I hear them over the car system. If I switch to phone speaker,no issue."

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"The Bluetooth system needs to be reset at least biweekly. Really just a hindrance not a total issue"

Katherine L., VA (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Radio

"The Slacker radio logged me out and would not log back in. The vehicle had to be physically taken in to be repaired"

Scott G., OH (2016 Tesla Model S 60D Electric)
Software update fixes

"Software update caused further problems with voice command"

Anonymous, AZ (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)
Voice control commands

"Voice commands are often not recognized. Recently voice commands stopped working at all"

Anonymous, AZ (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)

Body Integrity

Squeaks, rattles, wind noises, loose or cracked seals and/or weather-stripping, air and water leaks.

What Owners Say

Air or water leaks

"tail light seal allowed water to collect in light. Replaced under warranty."

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Seals and/or weather-stripping

"Poor fit of door seals all around"

Cameron R., CA (2016 Tesla Model S 85D Electric)
Squeaks or rattles

"this had to do with brakes getting wet on one side of the car and making a loud scraping noise"

Anonymous, OH (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)

"Squeaks in the seat"

Anonymous, MI (2016 Tesla Model S P90D Electric)

"very minor and fixed with a service call"

Anonymous, MI (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)

"Clicking sound in dash area"

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"Slight rattle in the dashboard, but only at certain speeds. It comes and goes"

Anonymous, WA (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"Rattles in the trunk area"

Pierre M., CA (2016 Tesla Model S P90D Electric)

"Cooling fan for battery pack started screeching. Apparently a known problem that the bearings on the fan goes out. They replaced the faulty one and pro-actively replaced the other fan"

Paul J., CA (2016 Tesla Model S 75.0 Electric)

"noises/rattles that came from behind the dash, some of which seemed to come from the front suspension."

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"There was a scraping/growling noise intermittenly"

Mary L., VA (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Wind noise

"passenger side door seal was not correctly installed. Fixed by Tesla no cost"

Anonymous, MT (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)

Body Hardware

Power or manual windows, locks and latches, tailgate, hatch or trunk, doors or sliding doors, mirrors, seat controls, safety belts, sunroof, convertible top.

What Owners Say

Doors or sliding doors

"Presenting door handle had to be serviced."

Anonymous, AZ (2016 Tesla Model S 85D Electric)

"The door handle for one of the doors has stopped presenting (extending so that the door can be opened from the outside)."

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S P85D Electric)
Glass defects

"Car was delivered with a distorted front windshield and was replaced under warranty"

Paul J., CA (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)

"The passenger window had vertical scratches upon delivery of the vehicle, among a number of other defects elsewhere on trim of car. Tesla service was atrocious in their lack of communication and follow up on repairs. I had to drive the entire process. It took two service visits of one week each to get repairs taken care of. Emails to service have never been replied to. Phone calls getting answered are possible, but not probable. They like to give out loaner Mercedes C series cars, the dict"

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Locks and latches

"2 door locks quit working and 1 window control needed to be replaced."

Anonymous, (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)

"Driver's door handle failed to automatically deploy upon unlocking. Had to enter vehicle from passenger's side. Repaired under warranty twice."

Anonymous, NJ (2016 Tesla Model S P90D Electric)

"Right front door handle failed to retract. Could not open door from outside the car"

William W., NC (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Mirrors

"passenger side mirror came loose and was hanging from cables. No trauma or accident. These mirrors automatically swing in whenever the car is turned off. I took it to Tesla and they said they thought that some dirt had gotten into the system. They were able to reattach the mirror and then lubricated it. I turned off the automatic retraction system as I didn't think it was necessary. Then about one month later, the mirror came off again. Tesla came out to my office and replaced the mirror at no charge. I am happy with their service. Unfortunate that it happened but they stand behind the product."

Anonymous, FL (2016 Tesla Model S P90D Electric)

"Mirrors are designed to fold in when parked. Driver's side mirror did not return to full open position when put in drive. Tesla fixed under warranty (is a known issue apparently). Works fine now."

Anonymous, VA (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Tailgate, hatch or trunk

"the hood of the vehicle (frunk) was not not aligned with the right front quarter panel"

Scott G., OH (2016 Tesla Model S 60D Electric)
Windows

"The right rear window rattles when it is down"

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"Film on windshield, probably spray in the factory, replaced at no charge"

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S P100D Electric)

Suspension

Shocks or struts, ball joints, tie rods, wheel bearings, alignment, steering linkage (includes rack and pinion), power steering (pumps and hoses, leaks), wheel balance, springs or torsion bars, bushings, electronic or air suspension.

What Owners Say

Alignment

"Alignment keeps needing to be adjusted - which effects how autopilot works.. been in twice for the repair"

Paul J., CA (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)

"Brand new car, off the lot and it veered right with the steering wheel was center"

Anonymous, NJ (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Ball joints

"needed to replace both front suspension bars I think they call them. Covered by warranty. Did not cover abnormal tire wear that I think was associated with it. Took two weeks for repair to be accomplished. Had to drive a rental car from enterprise"

Anonymous, NH (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Electronic or air suspension

"The air suspension failed as a result of a leak in an air line. The leak was the result of a squirrel chewing and damaging the line. The line was repaired for a total cost of approx $220 Cdn with a free Model 3 loaner provided."

Anonymous, ON (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"Failed right front air suspension control module: replaced under warranty"

Anonymous, NJ (2016 Tesla Model S P90D Electric)

"Control software did not perform properly from day one. Had to leave at dealership to fix, and was issued a loaner car for about 3 days"

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 60D Electric)

"leak as detected by warning light; fixed"

Anonymous, CO (2016 Tesla Model S 85D Electric)
Steering linkage (includes rack and pinion)

"Steering wheel began exhibiting resistance when turning the wheel to go around corners. It became significant enough to disengage the autopilot however the car was completely drivable. Car was serviced out of warranty for approx $240 Cdn with a free Model 3 loaner provided."

Anonymous, ON (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"power steering failed. tesla fixed right away"

Anonymous, MA (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Tie rods

"Detected sound of a steering mechanism problem. Dealer determined that the tie rod end on the right side of the car were loose. Dealer replaced them on BOTH sides of the car - warranty covered expense"

Anonymous, FL (2016 Tesla Model S 75.0 Electric)

Electric System

Alternator, starter, hybrid battery and related systems, regular battery, battery cables, engine harness, coil, ignition switch, electronic ignition, distributor or rotor failure, spark plugs and wires failure.

What Owners Say

Cruise control

"Radar antenna became misaligned causing cruise control and auto steer to not work."

Anonymous, MO (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Exterior lights (other than headlights)

"The light above one of the headlamps failed. Reported it on the Tesla App on my phone. A Tesla technician arrived by appointment at my house a few days later and replaced the light under warranty."

Anonymous, TX (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)

"Hazard lights operated/blinked continuously. Service Center replaced a control module the following day at no charge. SC also replaced the hazard light button although that did not cause the problem. Again at no charge. Service was thorough and fast. Tesla provided a free loaner car which included the gasoline"

Craig D., VA (2016 Tesla Model S P100D Electric)
Headlights

"The Left headlight went out and had to be replaced"

Anonymous, WA (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)

"going off intermittently. Replaced under warranty"

Anonymous, NJ (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"The CFL bezel surround burned out"

Chris B., ON (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Keyless entry

"Key Fob battery has the usual battery issues of Key Fob technology. Suck when it's cold out and your car won't open"

Craig Y., AB (2016 Tesla Model S 85D Electric)

Climate System

Blower (fan) motor, A/C compressor, condenser, evaporator, heater system, automatic climate control, refrigerant leakage, electrical failure.

What Owners Say

A/C compressor

"Faulty, replaced at no charge to me."

Anonymous, MA (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Automatic climate control

"The hinges on the internal HVAC system "air doors" failed and almost shut the system down. It took eight (8) trips to the service depot to get them to disassemble the system to locate the defect."

Anonymous, GA (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)

"climate system inadequate to cool car in back seat. I purchased the glass roof which lets in way too much heat. I should have never purchased that option living in Florida. When I would be traveling with passengers in the rear seat they were alway too hot. The only way I could even remotely keep it comfortable in the rear was to set the thermostat to 60 degrees in the front. Tesla told me that my system was working as it was designed. I told them it was unacceptable. The installed two mesh inserts under the glass roof that have cut down on the amount of heat reaching the passenger compartment. IT is still warm in the rear seat in the middle of the day May through September but much more tolerable. The AC system definitely isn't up to the task if one has the glass roof option. If I was to do it again, I would never get the glass roof in Florida. Maybe if I lived in the Northeast. Tesla should discourage people from buying that option if they live in the south. Other than that I really love the car."

Anonymous, FL (2016 Tesla Model S P90D Electric)
Blower (fan) motor

"At top fan speed, it was barely blowing at all."

Anonymous, FL (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)

"The problem was that the damper door hinges internal to the HVAC system had "broken" and these had to be replaced. It just took a lot of service visits to get them to tear down the HVAC assembly"

Anonymous, GA (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)
Heater system

"When heat is needed, heater does not provide enough heat to warm car similar to other cars. Unless we have heat at max level, there is not enough. And heat (and cool) air NEVER blow adequately in back seat area, no matter what is tried. Tesla examined issue and said it was performing as expected. Major comfort issue. They also left one of the vents with a significant rattle, which is annoying until we take it in again for another service trip."

Anonymous, WA (2016 Tesla Model S 60.0 Electric)

Drive System

Driveshaft or axle, CV joint, differential, transfer case, 4WD/AWD components, driveline vibration, traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), electrical failure.

What Owners Say

CV joint

"Axle developed a vibration during hard acceleration. It is a known problem that the high power of the Tesla drive system highly stresses the CV joints. Tesla agreed there was a vibration, and replaced the front axles with a new, heavier-duty version (under warranty), which is now the standard part."

William E., AL (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Driveline vibration

"see previous comments"

Anonymous, NY (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Driveshaft or axle

"Car would go from Reverse to Park on its own when backing up. Then one day, while parked at a FedEx store, was unable to shift the car into Drive or Reverse. Had to be towed to Tesla Service Center. After five days (and no loaner vehicle!), they resolved the issue - some part had malfunctioned and was replaced. No cost - taken care of under warranty."

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"vibration from the whole car when accelerating between 30mph-42mph. Front axles were out of balance causing a vibration noise during various driving conditions. Front Jackshaft Assembly and R and L Front Halfshaft Assemlbies replaced under warranty"

Anonymous, NY (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)
Electrical failure

"12V battery needed replacement"

Anonymous, WA (2016 Tesla Model S 75 Electric)

Paint/Trim

Paint (fading, chalking, cracking, or peeling), loose interior and exterior trim or moldings, rust.

What Owners Say

Loose exterior trim or moldings

"Car came with bent trim on the passenger side fender light/indicator"

Scott W., NV (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"Trim fit and finish was extremely poorly done and some trim was damaged by service center"

Keith K., FL (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

"For the cost, the fit and finish of this vehicle is severely wanting. Body parts do not line up."

Craig Y., AB (2016 Tesla Model S 85D Electric)
Loose interior trim or moldings

"Driver's interior door trim was loose. fixed under warranty."

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 75D Electric)
Paint (fading, chalking, cracking, or peeling)

"there were a few small imperfections in the paint. Tesla immediately repaired them at no cost as soon as they were informed. I am satisfied with repair"

Anonymous, CA (2016 Tesla Model S 85D Electric)

Power Equipment

Cruise control, clock, warning lights, body control module, keyless entry, wiper motor or washer, tire pressure monitor, interior or exterior lights, horn, gauges, 12V power plug, remote engine start, alarm or security system

What Owners Say

Heated steering wheel

"Failed to operate (failed in stages one several months ie., one part of the wheel would fail at a time until no heat at all). Planned to take it to Tesla annual service in March 2020 as part of the 4 year warranty, but due to state COVID-19 stay at home orders, I waited until the orders were partially lifted, then scheduled service (May 11). My car was 4 years old in April. Tesla would not even consider servicing it as part of the warranty because it was outside of the 4 year warranty period. They wanted $115 to "diagnose" the problem and any repairs would be additional. They didn't care that I was honoring the COVID-19 pandemic shutdown. Also, when I bought the Tesla, I bought an "8-year Service Plan" for $4000, but they said that was just for routine maintenance, not repair. Annual out of warranty maintenance at the timeI was $600. Why would they charge $1000 per year when the cost would be $600? They said that instead of the "8-year Service Plan" I needed the "Extended Service Agreement" to have been covered. That is what I thought I was buying. There was no mention of the "Extended Service Agreement". So the problem remains unresolved and I am not sure what to do. I certainly no longer respect Tesla."

Anonymous, CO (2016 Tesla Model S 90D Electric)

Brakes

Antilock system (ABS), parking brake, master cylinder, calipers, rotors, pulsation or vibration, squeaking, brake failure or wear.

What Owners Say

Parking brake

"It was a recall from TESLA. They sent a technician/mechanic to our condo in Florida to repair the problem in our parking space. Amazing. No other auto company can do this. Just absolutely mind boggling.. now if the condo commandos would let us install our plug near or in our personal parking undercover space,we’d have it made."

Anonymous, FL (2016 Tesla Model S 60.0 Electric)

Exhaust

Muffler, pipes, catalytic converter, exhaust manifold, leaks.

Engine Cooling

Radiator, cooling fan, antifreeze leaks, water pump, thermostat, overheating.

Engine Major

Engine rebuild or replacement, cylinder head, head gasket, turbo or supercharger, timing chain or timing belt.

Engine Minor

Accessory belts and pulleys, engine computer, engine mounts, engine knock or ping, oil leaks.

Fuel System

Check engine light, sensors (includes O2 or oxygen sensor), emission control devices (includes EGR), engine computer, engine computer, fuel cap, fuel gauge/sender, fuel injection system, fuel pump, fuel leaks, stalling or hesitation.

Transmission Minor

Gear selector or linkage, leaks, transmission computer, transmission sensor or solenoid, clutch adjustment, rough shifting, slipping transmission.

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