Homeowners insurance companies are increasingly in the crosshairs of extreme weather that has been associated with climate change, and their losses from resulting damage are on the rise.

You might already be seeing the effect. Erie Insurance, for example, has raised premiums to account for severe weather, says Joe Vahey, a regional vice president for Erie. The insurer, based in Pennsylvania, has developed climate modeling and risk analytics. These sophisticated models forecast weather risk down to the street level.

The Travelers Insurance Company says its risk analyses have led to writing fewer homeowners insurance policies in some areas and raising prices in others. The company wouldn’t provide specifics.

Travelers has also selectively imposed separate deductibles on standard homeowners insurance policies in areas prone to hurricanes and those at greater risk of tornadoes, and wind and hail damage.

More on Hurricanes and Homeowners Insurance

Homeowners insurance companies also reward customers who work to prevent losses, says Mike Kreidler, insurance commissioner of Washington state. For example, in seven states USAA offers homeowner discounts in “Firewise” communities recognized by the National Fire Protection Association. Residents work to prevent fire in every house’s 100- to 200-foot “ignition zone” by removing vegetation, brush, and other kindling.

The National Flood Insurance Program has raised premiums because increased rain and flooding have stressed the program financially. In 2012 Congress began phasing out policy subsidies and started basing premiums on actual flood risk. The average policy costs $709 per year; it was $627 in 2012.

So what’s the bottom line? Homeowners pay for extreme weather: higher premiums, bigger deductibles, fewer coverage options. Now more than ever, it’s critical to shop smart for homeowners insurance, make sure you have enough coverage, and take steps to prevent losses in the first place.

Editor’s Note: This article also appeared in the August 2017 issue of Consumer Reports magazine.