Donate |

Car seats

Car seat buying guide

Last updated: April 2014

Getting started

There are several types of car seats available, and as your child grows you'll buy several to maintain a consistently safe and comfortable fit. Of all the things you'll buy for your baby, a car seat should be at the top of your list.

Your first choice will be whether to put your newborn in a dedicated infant seat or a convertible seat. We think an infant seat is the safer choice; our testing has found it provides a better fit for a newborn. Get an infant car seat well before your baby arrives so you have plenty of time to make sure it fits your car. Learn to install it properly and get comfortable with how it works.

Selecting and installing a child seat correctly can be challenging. About 80 percent of parents and caregivers experience some level of misuse when using seats that include a harness, so it's important to carefully read the owner's manual for both your vehicle and your child's car seat. (Learn more in the study from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.) This buying guide, especially the Types section, will help you gauge when it's time to trade up to the next version. (See our videos for how to install an infant car seat, how to install a convertible car seat, and how to install a harnessed booster or belt-positioning booster car seat.)

Rear-facing models

Most state laws require babies to ride facing rearward in vehicles until they're at least 1 year of age. But we think it's safer to keep them in rear-facing seats until they're 2 years old or when they reach the height and weight limits of the seat. The American Academy of Pediatrics agrees.

There are infant car seats that face the rear and convertible car seats that can be used rear-facing and switched to face forward when your child is ready. But again, we recommend starting with an infant seat. Besides being safer, they're more convenient to use.

Types of child car seats

In addition to infant car seats and convertible seats, there are harnessed toddler booster seats, belt-positioning booster seats, built-in seats, and seats for children with special needs. From birth until your child reaches about 4 feet 9 inches, he will go through several car seats before being ready to use just your vehicle's safety belts. Your child's weight, height, and age are the most important criteria when choosing a car seat and deciding when to switch. For a detailed snapshot of the car-seat phases your child will go through, take a look at our car seat timeline.

Where to buy?

Discount stores such as Kmart, Target, and Wal-Mart, and baby superstores such as Babies "R" Us, Buy Buy Baby, and Baby Depot have a large selection of car seats. Department stores are also a good source for child seats. You'll generally have to go to a specialty boutique to find higher-end models such as Orbit, or you can make purchases online, although we recommend doing that only after you've had a chance to evaluate some models in person. Wherever you shop, make sure the child seat you're considering is compatible with your car. If the store won't let you test one, at least make sure you can return it if it doesn't work out--or go to another store.


You should buy a car seat based mostly on your child's weight, height, and age. As a rule of thumb, don't rush your child into the next stage. Keep him rear-facing as long as possible and then do the same for the next stages (which call for a forward-facing car seat and then a booster seat). Within this general guideline you have some choices. For starters--you can put your newborn in an infant car seat or in a convertible seat that can be used rear-facing and then switched to forward-facing when he's two years old. While choosing a convertible seat will save you the cost of an infant seat, we think infant seats are safer. Our tests have found that they're a better fit for newborns than many convertible seats.

Infant car seats

Safety is the most important reason to start your newborn in a dedicated rear-facing infant seat. These seats also offer the convenience of a detachable carrier that clicks into a base. You leave the base in the car, making it easy to pick up the baby in the seat and go. (See our infant car seat video.)

Rear-facing seats are a must for babies until their second birthday. But we recommend using a rear-facing seat until your child is 2 years old or at the upper weight or height limits for the seat. The American Academy of Pediatrics also says children should ride in seats facing rearward until they're 2 years old or reach the maximum height and weight for the seat. While some preemies might require special seats, there are infant seats for babies weighing as little as 4 pounds. Many infant seats have maximum weight capacities of 22 pounds, but some have weight limits up to 30 or 35 pounds. See our infant car seat Ratings, available to subscribers, for a range of tested models.

Infant seats come with a built-in five-point harness that secures the baby. They can only be used rear-facaing, and should be installed at an angle that provides optimum protection without interfering with baby's breathing. (Infants have little to no head control, and their airway can be cut off if their head slumps forward. The baby's seat should be reclined at an angle typically between 30 and 45 degrees.

Most infant seats come with a base that's installed in the car. You can then remove the seat using the built-in handle and snap it into a compatible stroller or universal frame. You can buy an extra base for most models--useful when one caregiver drops baby off and another picks him up in a different car. The Maxi-Cosi Mico Infant Car Seat ($180), for example, comes with a base; you can buy a second base for $60. Most infant seats also allow you to install the seat/carrier in a vehicle without a base, but a secure installation could be more difficult without a base, and some seats have lower maximum weight limits when installed as a carrier only.

Many car-seat manufacturers offer a "travel system" including an infant car seat, a base, and a stroller or frame that you snap the infant carrier into. Many stand-alone strollers can accommodate infant car seats from various manufacturers (see stroller types). The upside of a travel system is that they're a good value. But it's worth noting that these systems can be bulky. If you have to negotiate subway stairs, or your trunk is small, a separate car seat and seat-carrier frame or compact stroller might be a better choice.


Keeping an infant rear-facing as long as possible offers the best protection. With its removable carrier and swing-up handle, an infant seat lets you move baby out of the car without disturbing him. But an infant car seat should be used for travel and short naps only.


Once your infant grows too heavy or too tall for an infant seat but isn't old enough to turn forward-facing (we recommend not facing forward until 2 years old), you should switch to a rear-facing convertible model. It might be tempting to just buy a convertible seat to use from birth, but our tests have found that infant seats provide babies with a more secure fit than most convertibles. If your baby reaches the height or weight limit of her infant seat and is at least 2 years old, she can face forward in either a convertible seat or a toddler-booster with a 5-point harness (see toddler booster seats, below).

Convertible car seats

These offer forward- and rear-facing orientation options and a built-in five-point harness to secure your child. Some seats can hold a child rear-facing from infancy until she weighs about 45 pounds, such as the Evenflo Momentum 65 Deluxe (about $180), one of our top-rated models. We recommend that children remain rear-facing, the safest orientation, until they're at least 2 years old. Many convertible seats that face forward can accommodate toddlers up to 40 pounds, but companies are making more and more models for children who weigh as much as 80 pounds. Some "all-in-one" versions can even be converted into booster seats.

Allowable height ranges for the convertible seats we've tested run from a minimum of 19 inches to a maximum of 53 inches. And weight ranges were as little as 5 pounds to as much as 80 pounds.

Don't worry about your child's comfort when sitting rear-facing longer, as kids are more flexible than we are and likely comfortable in this position. Plus, crash data shows that lower-extremity injuries (such as those to the legs) are rare for children who ride rear-facing and are as likely to happen rear-facing as forward facing. Riding forward-facing does increase the risk of head and spinal injuries however, which are far more serious than a broken leg.


Convertible models allow you to switch the seat from rear- to forward-facing when your infant becomes a toddler. This saves you the expense of purchasing another seat. And the higher rear-facing weight capacities of these seats allow you to keep larger babies in the safer rear-facing orientation until age 2.


They don't offer the convenience of a separate infant seat carrier, and they're not compatible with strollers, so you'll have to transfer your baby to a carriage or stroller when you get out of your car, an inconvenience if you take her on frequent errands. Many also do not fit newborns as well as a dedicated rear-facing infant seat.

All-in-one car seats

Like convertible models, all-in-ones can be used either rear- or forward-facing using the seat's five-point harness to secure your child. Unlike convertibles, though, they can also be used as a belt-positioning booster later, with the harness is removed. As indicated by the name this seat is designed to be the only seat you'll ever need for your child, taking them from birth to booster. Their rear-facing harness weight capacities are high--between 35 and 40 lbs.--which means you should be able to keep your child rear-facing until the recommended 2 years of age without the child exceeding the weight limit. And the seats' longer length means your child is not likely to exceed the rear-facing height limit, either. Forward-facing harness capacities of these seats range from 50 to 65 lbs., allowing even heavier kids to safely use the harness (a safety plus over the 3-point vehicle belt) before moving to a booster seat.


These seats offer a potential value, as they may be the only seat your child may ever need. Higher rear- and forward-facing harnessed weight capacities and longer shells allow children to stay in a safer mode (rear facing rather that forward-facing, and in a 5-point harness vs. a 3-point vehicle belt) longer, rather than moving to the next step too soon.


These don't offer the convenience of a separate infant carrier for smaller babies, and their larger size may not fit the smallest newborns as well as dedicated infant seats. Also, since all-in-ones are typically larger and longer seats, they may not fit in a small car when installed rear-facing.

Toddler booster / combination car seats

These seats are designed to be used only in the forward-facing position. They come with a built-in five-point harness to keep your active toddler securely buckled in, and can be converted into a booster seat when your child out grows the harness. Once your child reaches the maximum weight and height limit of the harness, you can remove it and use the seat as a booster seat to raise your toddler to the right height to use your car's safety belt.

It's easy to confuse a harnessed toddler booster car seat with a high-back booster (covered below under "Boosters"). The difference is simple though: High-back boosters don't have harnesses and should be used only with the vehicle's safety belt.

Weight minimums for models with harnesses can be as low as 20 pounds and as high as 90 pounds. The Graco Nautilus 3-in-1, for example, has a weight range of 20 to 65 pounds.

But regardless of manufacturer's stated weight minimums, we don't recommend placing a child as small as 20 pounds in any forward-facing seat. And while some children younger than 3 years might be heavy enough to meet the lower-end of the weight range of a belt-positioning booster, they're better protected in a harnessed seat. Just as research has found that it's best to keep children in rear-facing seats, it also shows that they're safer with a 5-point harness than with a vehicle's 3-point safety belt when forward facing. Five-point-harnesses are inherently safer than car seats--that's why race-car drivers wear them. So even if your child has reached the weight and height minimums for a belt-positioning booster don't switch him until he outgrows the height and weight maximums for his harnessed seat.

Once your child reaches the harness's limit for either height or weight, remove the harness and use the seat as a belt-positioning booster. You should use the booster until your child can safely ride in the vehicle with safety belts alone, which is usually when a child is between 8 and 12 years old, weighs around 80 pounds, and is at least 57 inches tall, the height at which a car's safety belts are likely to fit properly without a booster seat.


The ability to accommodate a wide range of sizes and weights increases the useful life of these seats and allows you to keep your child secured with a built-in harness longer, a safer alternative to an unharnessed booster.


Some high-back models can interfere with the headrests in certain cars, making it hard to get the seat to fit properly.


Belt-positioning boosters (often referred to simply as "booster seats") don't have a built-in harness. They're designed to be used only with the vehicle's safety belts to better position the belt across a child's body. Unlike infant and convertible seats, most boosters require no installation, though some newer models can be secured with LATCH to prevent the seat from becoming a projectile in a crash. With a booster, the vehicle's seat belt is holding your child in place, not a harness. A backless booster is simply a cushion, essentially a "telephone book" that raises the child so the seat belt will fit better. High-back models include some side bolsters and a slot or guide to better position the shoulder belt across the child's chest and shoulder.

A good booster seat puts the shoulder portion of the safety belt mid-shoulder, across the stronger, bony structure of a child's chest and collarbone and the lap portion of the safety belt across the upper thighs and hips, not the abdomen. And a proper fit allows the child's back to rest against the vehicle's seat back (or the booster seat back if there is one), while his knees comfortably bend over the edge of the seat. You should also check to see if the belt stays in place when the child moves around.

Studies have found that children 4 to 8 who use a belt-positioning booster seat are 45 percent less likely to sustain injuries than children of similar ages who use the vehicle safety belt alone. Some high-back boosters can be changed into backless models, although we found that dedicated high-back models provided the best overall fit. The First Years Compass Ultra B540 is a high-back booster that provided a good belt fit in our test vehicles and has a reasonable price of $85.


Many are relatively inexpensive. High-back models with belt-positioning guides can position the shoulder belts better in different vehicles.


Boosters can tempt parents to stop using a seat with a harness prematurely because they're often easier to use and they allow a car's safety belts to fit properly. The latest safety research shows that it's best to keep children in a harness as long as possible before switching them to a booster.

Built-in seats

A few vehicles offer integrated forward-facing booster seats for toddlers that are built into the vehicle. Be sure to consult the vehicle owner's manual for the weight and height limits.


They're convenient to use and easy to convert back to a standard seat for adults or older children.


They don't include the side bolsters that a high-back booster seat has and that can provide some added protection in a side impact. And you'll still need a proper car seat when your child rides in other vehicles.

Preemies and special needs seats

There are a variety of seats offered for kids with special physical, emotional, or behavioral needs. You can read more about that in our preemies and special needs section.


Some car-seat features provide important safety and convenience benefits; others are just frills. Here are features to think about before you buy.

LATCH connections

Since Sept. 1, 2002, all child car seats with a built-in harness­--and nearly all passenger vehicles sold in the United States--have included equipment designed to make child-seat installation simpler. That system, called LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children), consists of elements that connect the car seat to metal anchors in a vehicle. (If you have an older car, you can still use the vehicle safety belts to install a LATCH-equipped child seat.)

The LATCH system isn't perfect but it can make installation easier than using the vehicle safety belts. Some anchors are hard to reach; you might have to dig around between the seat cushions to find them. Make sure to review the owner's manual for your car since it will help you find the anchors and should also have information about using them with car seats and info on weight limits. Most vehicles have LATCH anchors only on the outboard positions of the rear seat rather than in the center, which is considered the safest place to put a car seat. Despite its flaws, LATCH installation eliminates some of the incompatibility that might exist when you install a child seat using only the car's safety belts. However, LATCH does have its limits and in February 2014, new labeling was required for car seats to clarify what the limits of LATCH are for each seat. (See: "What parents need to know about the new LATCH car seat rule.")

What works: "Hook"-style LATCH connectors. These connectors, which come attached to your car seat, might require a twist to remove them from the anchors, and the anchors might not be accessible enough to do that easily.

What's better: "Push-on" style LATCH connectors. These are easier to use than hook-style LATCH connectors, especially in cars where the LATCH anchors are recessed or otherwise hard to reach. Push-on style connectors are often much easier to detach than the hooks as well, since they don't require a twist. (Learn more about LATCH in our report "Child Seats LATCH for Safety.")

Top tether

Don't forget the top tether. In addition to the lower LATCH anchors in the back seat, nearly all vehicles for model year 2001 and later have a place to attach a top tether. All forward-facing harnessed seats include a tether that consists of a strap in the back with a hook on the end, which you can attach to the top tether anchor. Top tethers significantly reduce a child's potential for head and other injuries, but research has found many parents don't use them.


Most infant, convertible, and toddler seats have a built-in adjustable five-point harness system, with two straps over the shoulders, two for the thighs, and a crotch strap. A five-point harness system is more secure than a three-point system, with two shoulder straps that come together at a buckle in the shell or a crotch strap. The extra straps will spread the impact of a crash more evenly across a child's body. The thigh and crotch straps also help prevent "submarining," or sliding out of the harness in a crash.

What works: Harness slots. These let you adjust the height of the harness by rethreading the harness through different slots in the fabric and seat shell. Seats with harness slots are a bit more cumbersome to adjust than those that adjust via an external knob or slide. The more slots there are, the better the seat can accommodate a child's growth and children of different sizes. If you're shopping for a seat with a greater range of weight capacity, look for the most slots in the seat.

What's better: External harness adjustment. This feature allows you to adjust the harness height without having to remove the seat from the car or remove and rethread the harness straps through slots in the seat's shell. The best versions have a knob or slide that moves the harness up or down easily with continuous, rather than pre-set, positions.

Recline adjustment

Some rear-facing seats have multiple base positions, which can help you attain the correct recline angle on different vehicle seats. The Chicco KeyFit 30, for example, has five base positions and retails for $180. Multiple adjustments can offer better potential for the seat to be adjusted for vehicle seats with different cushion angles to allow smaller babies to be correctly reclined without the need for added tools such as a rolled towel or pool noodle. The angle can be adjusted to a more upright position as you child grows.

What works: A single "foot." This allows you to recline a rear-facing seat base to a single angle and is most often used on inexpensive or base models of rear-facing-only seats as well as on convertibles seats to change the seat between forward- and rear-facing orientations.

What's better: Multiple recline adjustments. They not only help you to get the correct angle with a rear-facing seat even on different vehicle seat cushions but can be used to make children more comfortable when facing forward. Some convertible and forward-facing models that claim to have forward-facing recline adjustment might not adjust much or might have restrictions on using the adjustment.

Recline level indicators

These indicators will tell you whether or not you have a rear-facing seat sufficiently reclined (usually between 30 and 45 degrees) to allow your child's airway to be open and keep her head from falling forward while she's sleeping, which could an injury in a crash.

The best versions are easy to read and appear on both sides of the seat, so they're visible when installed on either side of the car's back seat). With any recline indicator, it's important that the car be parked on level ground.

What works: A line or other reference on the seat that is positioned parallel (or otherwise level to the ground) to indicate the correct recline position, an estimation that might not be that precise.

What's better: A ball or bubble-type indicator. This option gives you an easier-to-read indication that the seat is correctly reclined. The best versions appear on both sides of the seat and include different ranges depending on the child's weight.


Today's car seats cater to every taste: Do you want a seat with a design that looks like it was inspired by modern art, or covered in pink butterflies? Seeking something less splashy like a "Lapis" blue, or a simple black with piping? You can find it out there. Babies are messy, so washable fabric is a plus, if not a must. Some upholstery requires hand washing and line drying. And removing upholstery requires extensive dismantling of the seat's components, so check the instructions before you start taking things apart. Leather may look good, but it can become hot in the sun and cold in winter.

Covers, padding and cushions

Use them only if they're made for your specific seat by the same maker, and have been tested with the seat in government crash tests. As a general rule, only accessories that come with a seat are approved to be used with that seat. Add-on seat covers to keep small bodies warm (also known as "boots"), thicker padding, and adjustable head-support cushions are available for some seats. Add-ons can make the seat more comfortable, especially if they accommodate children of a significant range of ages or sizes.


Baby Trend arrow  |  Britax arrow  |  Chicco arrow  |  Clek arrow  |  Combi arrow  |  Cosco arrow  |  Cybex arrow  |  Diono arrow  |  Dorel arrow  |  Evenflo arrow  |  Graco arrow  |  Harmony arrow  |  Kiddy arrow  |  Lamaze arrow  |  Mia Moda arrow  |  Orbit Baby arrow  |  Peg Perego arrow  |  Recaro arrow  |  Safety 1st arrow  |  Summer Infant arrow  |  Sunshine Kids arrow  |  Teutonia arrow  |  The First Years arrow

You can compare car seats by brand. If you don’t see a model in our Ratings (available to subscribers), these profiles can help you learn about a manufacturer and what it offers (listed below in alphabetical order).

Baby Trend

A manufacturer of juvenile products from bouncers to child restraints, Baby Trend distinguishes itself as a manufacturer of innovative child products such as the Snap-N-Go and Sit-N-Stand stroller systems. Baby Trend infant child seats incorporate their own unique LATCH connector.


A British company that now manufactures seats in the U.S. as well. Britax seats are often considered a high-end product and incorporate many safety and ease-of-use features but often also have a higher price.


An Italian company that is one of the newest manufacturers to enter the child-seat market in the U.S., Chicco currently offers only an infant child seat for the U.S. market.


A relatively new name in child restraints, Clek currently offers a range of booster seats with premium materials, some with LATCH attachments, and unique names such as Oobr and Olli. Some seats even carry designer patterns such as those from Paul Frank.


Combi offers a variety of child products, including child seats, strollers, and bouncers, that are most often found in boutique-type retail stores.


One of the brand names of child products under the Dorel Juvenile Group, Cosco is known for child products at a value price.


A Europe-based company, Cybex is new to the child-restraint market in the U.S. Cybex offers a full line of innovative child travel products and carriers in Europe, and is known for its innovative designs and fabrics. Cybex seats are distributed in the U.S. by Regal Lager, based in Georgia.


Previously known as Sunshine Kids juvenile products, the new Diono brand name represents a worldwide company that makes "thoughtful car seat and family travel safety accessories and products."


The Dorel Juvenile Group manufactures and distributes seats under the Cosco, Eddie Bauer, Maxi-Cosi, Quinny, and Safety 1st names in the U.S. Safety 1st is known not just for child restraints but for many child-care and home-safety products. Cosco and Eddie Bauer are popular child-restraint and child-care-product brands. Maxi-Cosi and Quinny are European-styled child seats and products.


A popular manufacturer of baby care and juvenile products. Evenflo products are available at popular large retail outlets such as Walmart.


One of the world’s best-known names in child-care products. Graco originated popular products such as the Swyngomatic baby swing sold in the 1950s, and later Pack n’ Play portable play yards. Graco has the largest share of the child-seat market in the U.S. and is part of the Newell Rubbermaid group of companies.


A relatively new name among child car seat manufacturers, the Harmony Juvenile Group currently makes a group of backless and highback booster seats, including those under the Secure Juvenile Group name. Harmony markets its products as being "bigger than most, providing more room for your child to grow."


Kiddy is a 40-year-old, family-owned company based in Germany.  It manufactures strollers, car seats, and accessories.  Kiddy products are mostly available online.



A group of child products previously under The First Years name that is now marketed to select retailers as Lamaze.

Mia Moda

An Italian company known for its European-styled child products, including car seats, strollers, and travel systems. Mia Moda means "my style" in Italian. 

Orbit Baby

Orbit Baby is a relatively new name in child restraints and travel products based near San Francisco, and known for its high-end products. Orbit Baby products are often differentiated by their versatility and features that allow movement and easy integration between its child-seat bases and other products using its unique hub system. Orbit Baby products often appear in testimonials by celebrities and are marketed to them as well, with available features such as a sun-shade cover for its seats called a "paparazzi cover."

Peg Perego

An Italian manufacturer of many child products, including child seats. Like Britax’s, Peg Perego's products are often considered high-end and are available mostly in boutique-type retail outlets.


A German company more commonly associated with automobile seats than child seats, Recaro’s reputation is well known in original equipment automobile and motorsport seat technology but extends to a full line of child restraints and aircraft seats as well. Recaro offers a range of child restraints from convertibles to boosters in the U.S.

Safety 1st

One of the brands offered under the larger Dorel Juvenile Group company, Safety 1st is well known for its home safety products, but also makes play and travel safety products. Safety 1st  offers the widest range of products in the Dorel group.

Summer Infant

Covering a range of baby products from bath to bedtime, Summer Infant's innovative Prodigy infant seat is new to the child-restraint market, and offers innovative Smartscreen technology and a belt-tightening mechanism intended to help parent's achieve a correct and secure installation.

Sunshine Kids

Sunshine Kids Juvenile Group is known for its line of steel-reinforced child restraints with innovative features intended to address common issues related to child safety. Sunshine Kids child car seats were some of the first to incorporate higher harness-weight capacities for larger kids.  It has changed its name to Diono.


A German company originally known for its stroller designs, Teutonia became part of the Newell Rubbermaid group of companies in 2007 as Teutonia USA. Graco--another well-known child-product brand--is also part of the Newell Rubbermaid group.

The First Years

The First Years brand offers child seat, travel, feeding, and care products, some of which bear other recognizable names such as Thomas & Friends Wooden Railroad, Chuggington, and Lamaze (all under parent company Tomy).

Preemies and special needs

There are many reasons you might need to seek out a special car seat.

Small car beds are available for preemies and other very small newborns who might not fit securely in a conventional infant car seat. Some manufacturers have developed conventional infant car seats for babies who weigh less than 5 pounds. Car beds are available for infants who are unable to travel in a conventional infant car seat and must be transported lying down because of a medical condition. In addition, there are specially designed car seats for children with breathing problems, hip casts, neurological disorders, and other physical disabilities. Judith Talty, director of the Automotive Safety Program at the Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University, notes that parents work with their child's medical team to determine their most appropriate child restraint option. A doctor's prescription is usually required to obtain car beds for infants or purchase large medical seats for older children. "It's a medical decision," she said.

When looking for a seat appropriate for your tiny newborn, consider the following:

  • Most rear-facing car safety seats are designed by the manufacturer to be used by infants weighing more than 4 or 5 lbs., with some that specify "from birth," regardless of weight. Care should be taken to choose a restraint that can accommodate a baby's lower weight, but also has sufficient adjustability in the harness and crotch straps to fit smaller infants securely. Look for car seats that have a shorter distance between the crotch strap and seat back, and that have harness slots low enough that the straps can be placed at or below the shoulders of the infant when seated. If needed, a small rolled towel can be added between the crotch strap and the infant, as well as between the infant and the sides of the seat to reduce the risk of the infant sliding forward under or out of the harness.
  • Traditionally, rear-facing infant carriers should be reclined to about a 45-degree angle to help prevent an infant's head from falling forward and potentially causing breathing difficulties. Infants whose necks cannot yet support their heads in this semi-reclined position may need to be transported in a fully-reclined car bed.

Things we learned about keeping them safe in and out of the car:

  • Though it is common for hospitals to observe the child's breathing and muscle tone prior to discharge from the hospital, it is recommended that these observation periods be as long as 90 to 120 minutes to simulate travel times that will potentially be of that length, and that those observations be conducted in the child's own seat and in a position that will be used in the car.
  • The duration of time infants should be seated in a car safety seat should be minimized. Use car seats only for travel.
  • Babies who are prone to respiratory or other medical issues in the car seat may also be susceptible to those same conditions when in their swings, ‘bouncy' seats, and carriers. Use of these items should be limited until after the child has been shown to be stable when semi-reclined.
  • If the child is required to travel with additional equipment such as monitors or supplemental oxygen, care should be taken to wedge or secure those devices in the vehicle to eliminate them becoming a "projectile" in a crash or during hard braking.

Parents with questions should consult their pediatrician and go to the Automotive Safety Program.

There are occupational therapists on staff who conduct safe travel evaluations for children with disabilities. The toll free number is 1-800-755-0912.

Heavier children

If your child is overweight, it doesn't necessarily mean you should move them to the next level in car seats. The child may not be behaviorally ready and/or their musculoskeletal system may not be strong enough to take the same forces of a vehicle crash as an older child, without additional risk of injury.

It is key to recognize that each step "forward" to the next type of child restraint (rear-facing to forward-facing, booster seat to vehicle seatbelts) actually represents a step "backward" in terms of the level of safety provided to your child. When your child reaches the limits of their infant car seat, transition them to a rear-facing convertible model that has a rear-facing weight limit of 30 lbs. or more, and don't move them forward-facing until they've reached that weight. Or, consider a new rear-facing infant seat that has a rear-facing limit of 30 lbs. or more as well. This option allows you to keep using an infant carrier.

If you have a child over 40 lbs., look for new models that have higher harness weight limits. Also, consider a model that lets your child stay in a five-point harness until she is 50 lbs. or more, and then transition to a belt-positioning booster for the next step. If a child is large enough that even the higher-weight seats are too big or if they are too wide to fit most of these seats comfortably, you may want to consider a travel vest. At least one has a limit of 168 lbs. (See for more information.)

In some circumstances, it might be better to keep older children buckled with a 5-point harness. For example, an emotionally or developmentally disabled child might need extra restraint. It is possible to buy, for example, a toddler booster seat and use a 5-point harness on it that will hold a 100-pound youth in place.


Find Ratings blob logo

Car seats Ratings

Subscribers can view and compare all Car seats Ratings.

E-mail Newsletters

FREE e-mail Newsletters!
Choose from safety, health, cars, and more!
Already signed-up?
Manage your newsletters here too.

Babies & Kids News


and safety with
subscribers and fans

Follow us on:


Cars New Car Price Report
Find out what the dealers don't want you to know! Get dealer pricing information on a new car with the New Car Price Report.

Order Your Report


Mobile Get Ratings on the go and compare
while you shop

Learn more
left arrow right arrow
See also:
See buying guide down arrow
See buying guide down arrow
See buying guide down arrow
See buying guide down arrow
See buying guide down arrow
See buying guide down arrow