How are cars holding up? The reliability history charts, included in each car model page on CR.org, give you the most comprehensive reliability information available to consumers. (To find our ratings & reliability information go to our main Cars page and select a vehicle by make and model).

The reliability charts are based on responses on more than 640,000 vehicles from our latest Annual Auto Survey conducted by the Consumer Reports National Research Center. Consumer Reports subscribers reported on any serious problems they had with their vehicles during the past 12 months that they considered serious because of cost, failure, safety, or downtime, in any of the trouble spots included in the table below.

The scores in the charts are based on the percentage of respondents who reported problems in each of the 17 trouble spots. Because high-mileage cars tend to encounter more problems than low-mileage cars, problem rates are standardized to minimize differences due to mileage. The 2017 models were generally less than six months old at the time of the survey, with an average of about 3,000 miles.

How to Read the Model Page Charts

To check on the reliability history of a particular year's model, start with the Used Car Reliability Score. This score shows whether the model had more or fewer problems overall than the average model of that year, calculated from the total number of problems reported by subscribers in all trouble spots. Because problems with the engine major, cooling system, transmission major, and drive system can be serious and expensive to repair, our calculations give extra weight to problems in those areas.

To see how the model that's currently on sale is likely to hold up, look at the New Car Prediction at the bottom of each chart. For this rating, we averaged a model's Used Car Reliability Score for the newest three years, provided the vehicle did not change significantly in that time and hasn't been redesigned for 2018. We have found that several model years' data are a better predictor than the single most recent model year. One or two years' data may be used if the model was redesigned in 2017 or 2016, or if there were insufficient data for more years. We also we include a prediction for a model that has been redesigned or is new, based on reliability history, the manufacturer's track record, and our expert knowledge of the vehicle.

To see a model's individual strengths and weaknesses, look at the individual scores for each of the 17 Trouble Spots. The "Average Problem Rates" chart below shows the average problem rates for all models in the survey in each trouble spot. Scores are based on the percentage of survey respondents who reported problems for that trouble spot, compared with the average model of that year.

Models that score a  are not necessarily unreliable, but have a higher rate of problems than the average model. Similarly, models that score  are not necessarily problem-free, but had relatively few problems compared with other models.

Because problem rates in some trouble spots are very low, we do not assign a  or a unless the model's problem rate exceeds 3 percent. If a problem rate is below 2 or 1 percent it will be assigned a  or a  respectively. In the charts, a model year an * identifies the year of a major redesign or introduction.

(Key for reliability ratings from "better" to "worse")


What the Trouble Spots Include

ENGINE—major: Engine rebuild or replacement, cylinder head, head gasket, turbo or supercharger, timing chain or timing belt.

ENGINE—minor: Accessory belts and pulleys, engine computer, engine mounts, engine knock or ping, oil leaks.

ENGINE—cooling: Radiator, cooling fan, antifreeze leaks, water pump, thermostat, overheating.

TRANSMISSION (and clutch)-major: Transmission rebuild or replacement, torque converter, premature clutch replacement.

TRANSMISSION (and clutch)-minor: Gear selector or linkage, leaks, transmission computer, transmission sensor or solenoid, clutch adjustment, rough shifting, slipping transmission.

DRIVE SYSTEM: Driveshaft or axle, CV joint, differential, transfer case, 4WD/AWD components, driveline vibration, traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), electrical failure.

FUEL SYSTEM: Check engine light, sensors (includes O2 or oxygen sensor), emission control devices (includes EGR), engine computer, fuel cap, fuel gauge/sender, fuel injection system, fuel pump, fuel leaks, stalling or hesitation.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM: Alternator, starter, hybrid battery and related systems, regular battery, battery cables, engine harness, coil, ignition switch, electronic ignition, distributor or rotor failure, spark plugs and wires failure.

CLIMATE SYSTEM: Blower (fan) motor, A/C compressor, condenser, evaporator, heater system, automatic climate control, refrigerant leakage, electrical failure.

SUSPENSION: Shocks or struts, ball joints, tie rods, wheel bearings, alignment, steering linkage (includes rack and pinion), power steering (pumps and hoses, leaks), wheel balance, springs or torsion bars, bushings, electronic or air suspension.

BRAKES: Antilock system (ABS), parking brake, master cylinder, calipers, rotors, pulsation or vibration, squeaking, brake failure, premature wear.

EXHAUST: Muffler, pipes, catalytic converter, exhaust manifold, leaks.

PAINT/TRIM: Paint (fading, chalking, cracking, or peeling), loose interior and exterior trim or moldings, rust.

BODY INTEGRITY (noises & leaks): Squeaks, rattles, wind noises, loose or cracked seals and/or weather-stripping, air and water leaks.

BODY HARDWARE: Power or manual windows, locks and latches, tailgate, hatch or trunk, doors or sliding doors, mirrors, seat controls, safety belts, sunroof, convertible top, and glass defect.

POWER EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES: Cruise control, clock, warning lights, body control module, keyless entry, wiper motor or washer, tire pressure monitor, interior or exterior lights, horn, gauges, 12V power plug, remote engine start, alarm or security system

AUDIO SYSTEM (in-car electronics): CD or DVD players, radio, speakers, GPS, communication system (e.g., OnStar), display screen freezes or goes blank, phone pairing (e.g. Bluetooth), voice control commands, steering wheel controls, portable music device interface (e.g., iPod/MP3 player), backup or other camera/sensors.


Average Problem Rates

The chart below shows the average problem rates for all models in the survey in each trouble spot. For example, among the 2010 models, 2% have problems for Engine Major, 5% for Brakes, 4% for Climate System, and so on.

Trouble Spots1011121314151617
Engine Major2%1%1%1%<1%<1%<1%<1%
Engine Minor221111<1<1
Engine Cooling111<1<1<1<1<1
Trans. Major11111<1<1<1
Trans. Minor1111111<1
Drive System2211111<1
Fuel System2322111<1
Electrical System2111<1<1<1<1
Climate System4322211<1
Suspension4322111<1
Brakes4332111<1
Exhaust111<1<1<1<1<1
Paint/Trim2121111<1
Body Integrity32222211
Body Hardware1111111<1
Power Equip.53332211
In-car Electronics33333332