So far this season, 63 children have died from the flu, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That's more than had been reported by this time in 2016 and 2017, though fewer than at this point in 2015. Children are also being hospitalized at higher rates this year than in the two previous years.

But because it can take time for information to reach the CDC, the true number of children who've died from the flu as of now is probably higher than the reported number, according to the agency.

Some children—those who are younger than 5 or have an underlying condition such as asthma or diabetes—are at high risk for serious flu complications such as pneumonia and sepsis.

More on flu season

But this year, as in most years, about half the kids who have died from the flu have been otherwise healthy, according to the CDC. 

Typically, between 80 and 85 percent of youngsters who die from flu received no flu shot. “Most children who are hospitalized or become critically ill or die from flu are unvaccinated,” says Wendy Sue Swanson, M.D., a pediatrician at Seattle Children’s Hospital.

Also, even the immune systems of healthy young children are only moderately effective at fighting infection, Swanson says. The children haven’t had time to build up any immunity to flu, which is acquired over years of getting flu shots and being exposed to influenza. And the strain of flu that has predominated so far this season, H3N2, has historically caused more hospitalizations and deaths than other strains, especially for children and older adults.

Although the headlines have been worrisome, experts still caution parents not to panic. Knowing which children may be most likely to experience serious flu complications and taking the most effective protective steps for the entire family can go a long way in reducing your child’s risks. Keep in mind that a vast majority of youngsters recover quickly. But to make sure that happens, here’s what every parent should know.

Make Sure They’re Vaccinated

The flu vaccine is the most important step in protecting kids, and it’s not too late to get the flu shot for them (and yourself) if you haven’t already. Call your doctor’s office or pharmacy to make sure the vaccine is available. You can also use the CDC’s Vaccine Finder tool for pharmacies in your area that still have the flu shot. Note that only some states allow children to receive vaccines in pharmacies. Call your doctor’s office or your local health department if you’re unsure.

Don’t be discouraged by reports of low vaccine effectiveness for the flu shot this year, Swanson says. Even a low efficacy rate means that some people, including kids, who get the shot and are exposed to flu won't become sick. If vaccinated children get the flu anyway, it's likely to be milder. A 2016 study looking at recent flu seasons in Ontario, Canada, found that vaccinations reduced the likelihood that a child would be hospitalized with the flu. Plus, the flu shot is usually more effective against strains that circulate later in the season.

Here are key details on the flu shot for children at different ages:

Babies younger than 6 months shouldn't receive a flu shot. But pregnant women can and should. Not only are they at higher risk for flu complications, but getting the vaccine also gives them immunity they can pass on to their newborn.

Also, anyone who comes in contact with children of any age—but especially infants—should get the flu shot, says Elizabeth Murray, M.D., a pediatric emergency physician at the University of Rochester. That includes family members, caregivers, relatives, and friends.

Children between 6 months and 8 years old should get two doses of the flu shot the first time. Kids should also get two doses if they were vaccinated once before but got only one dose. 

Making sure these kids get both doses, which are given 28 days apart, is important even at this point in the season. According to the CDC, youngsters in this group who get only the first shot may have less protection against the flu or possibly none at all.

(Children in this age group who received two doses in the past need only one dose this season and going forward.)

Children older than 8 years old need a single-dose flu shot every year, according to the CDC.

Follow These Important Hygiene Habits

Keep those hands clean. If the flu vaccine is the best way to protect against the flu in children, “the second best way is diligent hand-washing,” Murray says. Encourage kids (and grownups) to wash their hands before eating meals and to keep their hands away from their eyes, nose, and mouth. Murray suggests making it a routine for everyone to wash their hands when they return home from school or errands. And teach children to wash their hands properly, for at least 20 seconds with soap and water.

Cough the right way. Parents should try get kids in the habit of coughing into their elbows and covering sneezes with tissues to avoid spreading germs (and should do the same themselves).

If Kids Get Sick With the Flu

Symptoms of the flu in children are largely the same as they are in adults, including a fever, coughing, a sore throat, a runny nose, head or body aches, and fatigue. But children are more likely than adults to experience vomiting or diarrhea with the flu, the CDC says.

Most children recover from the flu in a week or two with rest, fluids, and medication to reduce fever, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol and generic), ibuprofen (Advil and generic), and naproxen (Aleve and generic), without needing a doctor’s care.

But some, particularly those who are younger than 5 or have underlying medical problems, may benefit from from treatment with prescription antiviral drugs such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu and generic) or zanamivir (Relenza). These medications have been found to shorten the illness and reduce the likelihood of hospitalization.

Because antivirals need to be started within 48 hours of the beginning of flu symptoms for maximum effectiveness, call your doctor right away if your child is in one of the categories above and you suspect the flu.

And be on the lookout for the following, which may signal that your child needs medical care right away:

For very young infants—younger than 60 days old—fever higher than 100.5° F from any illness is an emergency, Murray says. So if a child’s rectal temperature is 100.5° F or higher, take him or her to a doctor’s office or an emergency room for evaluation. (For children older than 60 days, fever alone isn’t a sign of a medical emergency.)

Other symptoms that warrant a trip to an ER for children of any age: fever with rash, dehydration (signs include crying without tears, sunken eyes, dry and cracked lips, lethargy or fatigue, and, in babies, much less frequent wet diapers and a sunken soft spot on the top of the head), seeming unresponsive, severe vomiting, pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen, and confusion.

Both children and adults who have the flu and experience difficulty breathing should get to an ER. In children, you may notice bluish skin color, or skin that appears to be pulling in around the rib cage when they take a breath. They may also resist lying down because it makes breathing more difficult. An infant's heads may bob slightly as he or she breathes, Murray says.

And last, people of all ages should contact a doctor or go to an urgent care facility or ER if an illness seems to be subsiding but then suddenly worsens, with symptoms such as a newly high fever or cough. These could be signs of a secondary infection, such as pneumonia.