On Your Mind: Food and Nutrition Questions
Consumer Reports' experts answer your questions about healthy eating and food safety
Consumer Reports' health and safety experts answer your common—and not so common—questions about food, nutrition, and healthy eating.
This week's questions:
Have a food- or nutrition-related question you'd like us to answer? Ask us here.
Q: I see so many unusual greens at the supermarket these days. What can I do with them?
A: You can simply wash, drain, and chop late spring and summer greens such as bok choy, chard, collards, dandelion, mizuna, and mustard. Then sauté them in olive oil and garlic, with a squeeze of lemon juice, until they’re barely wilted, says Sharon Palmer, RDN, a nutritionist in Ojai, Calif.
Add herbs if you like, or mix with white beans and pasta for a meal. Chop tender greens like arugula, Little Gem, escarole, mache, pea tendrils, and oak leaf lettuce for use in a salad.
Q: I've always tried to eat a healthy balanced diet every day. Now I hear that every meal should be balanced. Is that true?
A: No. Your body has enough reserves of various nutrients to thrive for a while if some meals are unbalanced, or even missed.
For example, foods that provide protein, carbohydrates, and fats should be replenished daily. Water-soluble vitamins, including the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C, will last two to three days.
Your body stores enough minerals and fat-soluble vitamins, such as A, D, and E, to last weeks or even months.
Q: I love nuts, but worry about their calories. How many should I eat to benefit from their nutrients without overdoing it?
A: Eat at least five 1-ounce servings of nuts per week.
The brains of older women who ate that amount functioned similarly to those of women 2 years younger, according to a study in the Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging.
A small study found that older men and women who ate just one Brazil nut a day for six months experienced increases in blood selenium levels as well as better verbal abilities and spatial skills.
Brazil nuts contain selenium, a mineral that helps boost the activity of antioxidants that may protect the brain from damage. One nut supplies all the selenium you need in a day.
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Due to the volume of correspondence we receive, we can’t reply to all submissions. However, we may publish answers to general-interest questions in future editions of On Your Mind.
The information offered by Consumer Reports in On Your Mind should not substitute for professional or medical advice. Readers should always consult a physician or another professional for treatment and advice.
Q: How many calories are in alcoholic drinks?
A: Depending on type, a drink can contribute a significant number of calories to your diet. But three out of four adults don't know the calorie count for a glass of wine, a mug of beer, a cocktail, or a shot of liquor, according to a review of 18 studies from Australia, Europe, and the U.S. published in the journal Obesity Reviews. What to know: Calorie counts vary, based on the type of alcohol and the added ingredients. For instance, 5 ounces of red or white wine generally has about 123 to 128 calories, but just 3.5 ounces of sweet dessert wine could have 168. A 12-ounce regular beer has 155 calories; a light beer, about 104. And mixers and extra ingredients mean a cocktail could have anywhere from 78 calories (for a 4-ounce mimosa) to 418 calories, for a 2.5-ounce chocolate martini.
Q: Are seaweed snacks really good for me?
A: Tasty, crunchy, and generally low in calories, seaweed snacks can provide calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, vitamins A, C, E, and K, and some B vitamins, says Ginger Hultin, MS, RDN, a dietician in Seattle. They're often made of dried nori—also used to wrap sushi rolls—but some are more processed and may contain additives.
"Check the ingredients list for 'seaweed' or 'nori,'" Hultin says. "You may see a little oil or salt added, but there shouldn't be more than one to three ingredients."
Q: If I have prediabetes, will I definitely get diabetes? Can changing my diet help?
A: No, and evidence suggests that several steps can reduce your likelihood of developing full-blown type 2 diabetes. Increase your physical activity, work to lose extra weight, and eat a healthier diet.
For instance, choose whole grains over refined and whole fruit instead of juice, and spread small amounts of carbohydrates (like bread, pasta, and potatoes) over three meals instead of consuming a lot at just one.
"Pair carbs with protein to keep blood sugar levels more even," says Medha Munshi, MD, director of the geriatric diabetes program at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. Talk with your doctor about whether temporarily doing blood sugar checks at home may help you make the right dietary choices, and whether you need to do more to control cholesterol and high blood pressure.
Q: What's the best way to keep berries fresh?
A: For optimal storage, set your refrigerator to 37° F, CR's experts say. When shopping, check containers for bruised or moldy berries. (At home, remove any that you may have missed.) You can refrigerate berries on a shelf in the container they came in. Or remove them from their container, place in a covered container lined with paper towels. Don't wash or trim them until you're ready to use them. Your berries should keep for up to 7 days.
Q: I've heard that people ingest a lot of plastic. What can I do to minimize the amount I get from the food I eat?
A: Some researchers think the average person consumes up to 5 grams of plastic a week—the equivalent of a credit card.
Manufacturers and some regulatory agencies have long assured us that plastics are safe for human health. We don't fully know yet what effects ingesting plastic may have, but when Consumer Reports dug into this issue, we found that some researchers advise a precautionary approach. Some are concerned that ingesting plastic may, for instance, create a systemic inflammatory response or release harmful chemicals into our bodies.
To reduce the plastic you may be taking in, experts advise that you:
- Drink tap water instead of bottled, unless your tap water is contaminated with substances such as lead. A water filter may further reduce microplastic levels.
- Buy and store food in glass, silicone, or foil, not plastic.
- Eat fresh food—instead of processed food that's wrapped in plastic—as much as possible.
Q: Are there any vegetables with special heart health benefits?
A: In an Australian study of 954 older women, those who ate three or more vegetable servings per day fared better based on a stroke risk factor known as carotid artery intima-media thickness than those who had two servings per day or fewer. The women in the study filled out food questionnaires and had scans that measured the thickness of their neck arteries.
All veggies are healthy, but this study suggests that cruciferous ones, such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower, seem to be the most beneficial. Why? Sulforaphane, a compound in them, may inhibit inflammation.
Q: Am I getting some vegetables when I eat veggie chips?
A: A little—but don't count them toward the goal of at least 2 cups of vegetables a day.
Some chips are made from dried, sliced whole veggies like beets or from processed starchy veggies like sweet potatoes and taro. Others combine a bit of vegetable powder with regular potatoes. Regardless, think of them like potato chips; the nutrition profile is similar.
For a healthier alternative, try baby carrots, sliced red peppers, or homemade kale chips—fresh kale lightly salted and oiled, and baked to a crisp.
Q: Is it critical to wash chicken before you cook it? I have heard that it's better not to.
A: According to a survey published in the Journal of Food Protection, 68 percent of people wash their raw chicken—but that doesn't make doing so right.
"Washing raw chicken doesn't remove bacteria if it's there," says James E. Rogers, Ph.D., director of food safety research and testing at CR. "In fact, washing may increase your chances of getting food poisoning.” Why? A recent study from the Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service found that people who washed or rinsed their raw birds were leaving a trail of bacteria around the kitchen. Sixty percent had bacteria in their sink afterward, and 14 percent still had bacteria in the sink after cleaning it.
If there's excess juice on a raw chicken that you want to remove, gently wipe it with a damp paper towel, then wash your hands with soap for a full 20 seconds.
Q: What's the best diet plan to keep my body young?
A: In an Italian study of 5,200 people ages 65 and older, those who most closely followed a Mediterranean-style diet (rich in produce, fish, beans, nuts, olive oil, and whole grains, and low in meat and dairy) were 25 percent less likely to diet over eight years than other study subjects.
This eating style may delay the aging process by helping to protect the DNA in cells from damage. The researchers noted that several previous studies had similar results.
Q: I love sweets but I'm trying to cut back. How much is okay, and what's the best way to have a treat?
A: Overdoing it on added sugars is linked to weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of dying from heart disease, so moderation is important.
The American Heart Association recommends no more than 24 grams (6 teaspoons) of added sugar per day for women and no more than 36 grams (9 teaspoons) for men. (There are about 30 grams of sugar in a 1.69-ounce bag of M&Ms.)
It's best to avoid sodas and other sweet drinks (the top source of added sugars in the American diet). Also stick with prepackaged, single-serve sweets, and keep only a small amount of sugary items at home.
Q: Are quick-cooking whole grains as healthy as the regular ones?
A: Some whole grains, such as brown rice, which can take up to 60 minutes to prepare, are available in microwavable form (which is ready in as little as 90 seconds) and quick-cooking versions (ready in 5 to 10 minutes).
Levels of fiber, protein, and vitamins in such time-saving whole grains are about the same as those in regular versions.
You can also cook and freeze small batches of your favorite grains, then reheat them when needed. Or experiment with grains such as bulgur and whole-wheat couscous; regular versions are done in about 5 to 12 minutes.
Q: My fresh fruit often spoils before I eat it. Is dried or canned healthy, too?
A: It can be. Canned, dried, and frozen all count toward the 1-1/2 cups a day for women age 51 and older and 2 cups a day for men age 51 and older recommended by the Department of Agriculture.
Opt for canned fruit in water instead of syrup and dried fruit without added sugars.
Note: A half-cup of dried fruits like raisins or prunes actually counts as 1 cup of fruit, says Angela Lemond, R.D.N., a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Q: I have 2 or 3 drinks most nights. Is that okay?
A: U.S. guidelines advise having no more than one drink a day for women, two for men. But a limit of just one may be better for everyone 65 and older, says Benjamin H. Han , M.D., M.P.H., an assistant professor at the New York University School of Medicine.
Older adults are more sensitive to alcohol's effects, which raise the risk of falls and car crashes. Too much alcohol can worsen diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart failure, and mixing it with sleep or pain drugs and antidepressants can be dangerous.
Cut back or get help if drinking interferes with obligations, or if you drink and drive, need more alcohol to feel its effects, or shake or sweat when you don't drink, Han says.
Q: Are canned beans as healthy as dried beans?
A: There are differences. Canning, cooking, and soaking can change the nutritional content of beans a bit. And canned beans frequently have added salt, which can be a problem if you're watching your sodium.
But both are a good source of fiber, protein, and nutrients such as folate and potassium. Canned beans are also ready to eat, while dry beans need to be soaked for hours or even overnight before cooking. If you don't have time for soaking, look for low- or no-sodium varieties of canned beans, or drain and rinse canned beans to reduce the sodium by up to 40 percent.
Q: I think that Frosted Shredded Wheat is healthier than Froot Loops, but I need expert advice. Which one is better for me?
You're right, Frosted Shredded Wheat is the better pick, even though both cereals are pretty sugary, says Amy Keating R.D., a CR nutritionist. Check the label and you'll see both have 12 grams of added sugars per serving. That's three teaspoons, which is about half the amount the American Heart Association says women should have in a day (a third of the amount for men).
But sugar doesn't tell the whole story. The shredded wheat is 100 percent whole grain, has 6 grams of fiber per serving, and has less-processed ingredients. Froot Loops is made with some whole grains (corn and oat flours), but also contains white wheat flour and serves up just 2 grams of fiber. Plus it has artificial colors and salt (210 mg sodium), none of which are in the shredded wheat.
You can give your bowl of Frosted Shredded Wheat a nutritional upgrade by mixing it half-and-half with regular shredded wheat—you'll still get the sweetness while cutting the added sugars in half. You can then continue to adjust the blend, increasing the amount of regular cereal as your taste buds adjust to less sugar. Adding a sliced banana, peach/nectarine, or berries would add some sweetness without any added sugars.
Q: Low-sodium canned soup is so dull. Is it really better for me?
A: If you're trying to cut the salt in your diet, choosing lower-sodium or no-salt-added canned soup can make a big difference. And there's a lot you can do to improve the taste, texture, and nutrition.
"Add your own herbs and spices for flavor, along with as many fresh, frozen, or sodium-free canned vegetables as you like," suggests Bonnie Taub-Dix, R.D.N., "plus beans or chopped poultry, meat, or tofu from last night's dinner for a protein boost."
Q: Do fiber supplements count toward my daily intake of fiber?
A: Yes. You can count the grams of fiber in these toward your daily goal of 21 grams for women over age 50 and 30 grams for men of that age, says Ginger Hultin, R.D.N., a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. But getting your fill of fiber from fruits, veggies, and whole grains is best.
"When you eat naturally high-fiber foods, you also increase your intake of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants—added benefits that don't come from a fiber supplement," Hultin explains. For instance, fiber found in produce and whole grains may help your "good" gut bacteria to flourish.
Q: Is frozen yogurt as healthy as regular yogurt?
A: Frozen yogurt with a "Live & Active Cultures" seal may have the same beneficial bacteria found in regular yogurt. But the amounts in frozen yogurt with this seal can be 10 times lower than in regular yogurt, and fro-yo is sometimes lower in calcium and protein, too.
Both frozen and regular yogurt can have different amounts of calories and sugar per serving, so watch out for added sugars if you're looking for a healthier choice, whether frozen or not.
Q: Is pork better for me than red meat is?
A: Pork, like beef, lamb, and veal, is a red meat. And a higher intake of red and processed meat is linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and colorectal cancer.
So it's wise to limit red meat to a couple of 3- to 4-ounce weekly servings, says Christine Rosenbloom, Ph.D., co-author of "Food & Fitness After 50" (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2018). (Some experts say up to four weekly servings is okay.)
Some pork cuts, such as tenderloin and loin chops, are leaner than others, so go for those when you eat pork.
Q: What healthy herbs and veggies can I grow in a container?
A: Fresh-picked vegetables may have more nutrients than those that are canned or frozen, or those that travel long distances to the supermarket.
If you have a spot on your deck, patio, or balcony that gets 3 to 6 hours of daily sun, you can grow leafy greens like lettuce, spinach, and Swiss chard, and herbs like basil, chives, mint, oregano, parsley, sage, and thyme. (You can also grow herbs on a sunny windowsill.)
For good drainage, use commercial potting soil in your containers, says Jeana Myers, Ph.D., a horticulture agent with the North Carolina Cooperative Extension in Wake County.
You can also try growing peppers or a tomato variety bred for container gardening. These need at least 6 to 8 hours of sun daily.
Q: Is raw pet food safe?
A: Raw pet food—which may contain raw organ or muscle meat and bone, unpasteurized milk, uncooked egg, and uncooked fruits, grains, and veggies—has been growing in popularity. But the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and most veterinarians and veterinary organizations, caution against it.
Uncooked ingredients could be a source of harmful bacteria and other pathogens that can make pets and people sick. A 2017 study in the journal BMC Veterinary Research reports that dogs fed raw food shed 23 times more salmonella organisms in their feces than other dogs.
This can pose a risk to you when you're cleaning up after pets. Your pet can also transfer bacteria by licking your face after eating, scratching you after they step in their feces, or possibly even during petting.
And if you don't follow proper food safety practices, you can infect yourself, says James E. Rogers, Ph.D., director of food safety research and testing at Consumer Reports. "Since you're not eating the pet food, you may not think you have to take the same care to wash your hands or the utensils you use," he says. "But you can easily get sick if you touch your mouth after being in contact with contaminated food, surfaces, or utensils."
In addition to frozen or fresh raw meat or meat and vegetable blends, raw items for pets may come in freeze-dried and dehydrated forms (such as rawhide chews, pig ears, and similar treats). For now, the FDA says, it's safest to avoid a raw diet for your pet. For more on raw pet food, read "Should You Feed Your Pet Raw Food?"
Q: Can I get some sun without sunblock to boost my vitamin D?
A: The American Cancer Society and other groups warn against that because exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet B rays also raises skin cancer risk, especially for aging skin.
You need about 600 IU of vitamin D per day before age 70 and 800 IU after. You can generally get that from vitamin D-rich and fortified foods; more isn’t beneficial.
Your doctor will advise if you need a supplement, but just 15 minutes of sun may be enough, too.
Q: How can I tell what foods have plenty of whole grains?
At a minimum, you want a whole grain (like whole oats, whole-wheat flour, whole-grain corn, whole-grain brown rice, or whole rye) as the first ingredient.
A 100 percent whole-grain claim or a Whole Grain Stamp label is best because it indicates that all of a product’s grain is whole.
Q: Is sparkling water bad for your teeth, or is it comparable to tap water?
A: Fizzy drinks such as carbonated plain seltzer, club soda, and unflavored sparkling water are a sugar- and calorie-free way to hydrate, though club soda has a little added sodium.
These drinks can be slightly acidic, but sodas and fruit juices—as well as other beverages that contain flavor enhancers such as citric acid—are much more acidic and damaging to tooth enamel.
Moderation is key, and fluoridated tap water is still best for your teeth.
Q: Do ‘immune boosting’ supplements work?
A: Supplements whose labels promise stronger immunity may have ingredients that include vitamin C and zinc, among other vitamins and minerals.
Vitamin C and zinc are important for the immune system, but most healthy adults without a deficiency should focus on a healthy diet, says Simin Nikbin Meydani, Ph.D., lead scientist for the Nutritional Immunology Team at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston.
Get 1 to 3 cups of vegetables and 1 to 2 cups of fruit each day, and about 8 mg of zinc (11 mg for men) found in foods like beef, poultry, crabs, oysters, fortified cereal, nuts, whole grains, dairy, and legumes.
Q: Is deli meat healthy if it’s uncured or nitrite-free?
A: Most cold cuts are processed meats. Eating them regularly, even in small portions, can increase your risk of cancer and has been linked to heart disease and diabetes. The culprits could be added nitrites and nitrates used in processing.
And the words “uncured” and “nitrite-free” on a label don’t necessarily mean the meat is uncured or that no nitrites were added, says Charlotte Vallaeys, M.S., Consumer Reports’ senior policy analyst for food and nutrition. “The USDA allows these claims to appear on processed meat if it was cured with nitrites derived from celery or other vegetables,” she says.
In 2019, CR’s testing of uncured and nitrite-free deli meats found nitrite levels similar to those in meats cured with synthetic nitrites. “Our advice is to eat little, if any, processed meat,” Vallaeys says.
Q: I'm constantly craving sugar these days. What can I do?
A: Try a treat schedule. Have a small sweet (such as one or two cookies, a scoop of ice cream, or a square of chocolate) on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, for example, and fruit and vegetable snacks the rest of the time, says Angel Planells, R.D.N., a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
If treats feel paltry, try adding fruit. “You get the best of both worlds, a sweet taste plus high-quality nutrition,” he says.
Q: I’m taking antibiotics. Do I need probiotic supplements, too?
A: Supplements with probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or Saccharomyces boulardii have been touted to reduce the likelihood of diarrhea, which can sometimes be a side effect of antibiotics. But studies have found that probiotic supplements don’t necessarily help and may slow recovery from diarrhea.
A largely plant-based diet while you’re taking antibiotics might be a better idea, says Emeran A. Mayer, M.D., co-director of CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center at UCLA. And get a variety of fermented foods, such as yogurt, kimchi, and sauerkraut, he says.
Q: How can I make frozen vegetables taste better?
A: Bump up their taste and texture by tossing still-frozen veggies with vegetable oil, your favorite seasonings, and a pinch of salt, then roasting. This will crisp up the edges and give the veggies more flavor, says Jen Bruning, R.D.N., a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
You can also stir-fry or briefly steam veggies, then top with a low-sodium sauce or seasonings, or add them to soups, casseroles, chili, or baked pasta dishes. Consider newer options such as cauliflower “rice” and spiralized zucchini or butternut squash.
Q: Which cooking oils are the healthiest?
A: You probably know olive oil is a good choice, but there are others.
The American Heart Association recommends choosing oils with less than 4 grams of saturated fat—which can contribute to heart disease—per tablespoon. In addition to olive oil, these include avocado, canola, corn, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower.
Limit coconut oil, which has 11 grams of saturated fat per tablespoon. “If you like coconut oil, use it in moderation, once in a while,” says Isabel Maples, R.D.N., a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Note: All oils have about 120 calories per tablespoon, so use small amounts.
Q: Will immune-boosting drinks protect me from COVID-19?
A: Skip the pricey tonics packed with vitamin C or other compounds that manufacturers say will ward off sickness.
Eating whole foods known to support the immune system is a better bet, says Cindy Dallow, Ph.D., a registered dietitian in Greeley, Colo. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and omega-3 fatty acids should provide the range of nutrients you need to stay healthy. Try to get plenty of sleep and regular exercise, she says, and take steps to reduce stress.
Q: Can drinking diet soda instead of regular help with weight loss?
A: Not according to a 2017 review of 37 studies, which found that artificial sweeteners didn't lead to significant weight loss. In some of the studies, people gained weight. Sugar-sweetened and “diet” drinks may hike the risk of conditions like diabetes and heart disease, research suggests.
To kick a soda habit, switch to water and unsweetened tea and coffee over two weeks, says Nancy Farrell Allen, R.D.N., a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Q: I throw out a lot of food that’s gone bad or is past the use-by date. How can I waste less?
A: A recent study found that American households toss 32 percent of the food they buy each year.
To cut down on your food waste, try shopping with a grocery list, using frozen fruits and vegetables, buying food in smaller amounts, storing bread in the freezer, and seeking out individually wrapped portions of items like cheese and yogurt.
Move older food toward the front of the fridge, says Alice Henneman, R.D.N., of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. She also suggests “shopping your fridge” before going to the store—you might already have what you need.
Q: Are homemade baked goods healthier than store-bought?
A: They can be.
Cakes, cookies, muffins, and pies you whip up from scratch won't contain the preservatives and other additives typically used to improve the taste, texture, and color of many commercial baked goods, says Andrea Ovard, R.D.N., a Utah hospital dietitian who also has a private practice. They may also be lower in sodium and sugar.
Plus, “homemade is usually better because you can control what’s going into them,” she says. You may be able to upgrade recipes nutritionally by, say, using nonfat milk instead of whole to reduce saturated fat, or swapping some oil for Greek yogurt to cut calories.
Q: How can I make sure I’m getting enough protein at breakfast?
A: Many typical breakfast foods, such as buttered toast, provide little protein, says Lauri Wright, R.D.N., a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and chair of the department of nutrition and dietetics at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville. Older adults should aim for 20 grams at their first daily meal, the amount in about 6 ounces of plain, low-fat Greek yogurt; a two-egg omelet with an ounce of mozzarella cheese; or 2 tablespoons of peanut butter on two pieces of whole-wheat toast.
Q: Should I scrub or peel fruit and veggies to get rid of pesticides?
A: Peeling can help remove some pesticides, but fruit and vegetable skins are often packed with nutrients. Plus, some pesticides are absorbed through a plant’s roots and can’t be removed by peeling or washing.
That said, washing can remove some pesticides. To clean, gently rub the produce under running water or use a brush for tougher-skinned fruits and vegetables such as squash, says James Rogers, Ph.D., director of food safety research and testing at Consumer Reports. Drying it afterward with a paper towel helps remove some bacteria, too.
A study found that a 12-minute soak in a mixture of baking soda and water may remove even more pesticide residue, but it was tested only with apples. Another option is buying organic fruit and vegetables, Rogers says, although you’ll still need to wash them.
Q: What are ultraprocessed foods, and is it okay to eat them?
A: Sugar-sweetened drinks, sugary cereals, packaged baked goods, chips, certain energy bars, and some heat-and-eat meals fall under the umbrella of ultraprocessed foods. “They can pack a lot of calories, sodium, and sugars with little or no fiber, good fats, lean protein, or the nutrients you find in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts,” says Lisa Young, Ph.D., an adjunct professor of nutrition at New York University. Recent studies suggest that ultraprocessed foods may hike the risk of some cancers, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. So stick with whole and minimally processed food as much as possible.
Q: How long will restaurant leftovers last in my refrigerator?
A: Cooked meat, poultry, pizza, and soup will keep up to four days; lunch meats and salads (like tuna) up to five if you get them into the fridge within 2 hours of being served (1 hour if food was outside in temps over 90° F). Reheat leftovers to at least 165° F, and bring soups, sauces, and gravy to a boil before eating.