Consumer Reports’ Annual Owner Satisfaction Survey tells us how subscribers feel about the cars they bought. But how do the car brands themselves match up? After all, one outstanding model—or a disappointing one—doesn’t define a brand.

Our brand rankings represent owner sentiment across each brand’s product line. (Model satisfaction is determined by the percentage of owners who responded “definitely yes” to the question of whether they would buy the same vehicle if they had it to do all over again.) To determine brand love—or disdain—we took a straight average of the satisfaction score for each brand’s models.

In order to qualify, the brand had to have at least two models with data. For this analysis, we focused on cars from model years 2014-2017 to represent the current state of the brands, which included over 300,000 vehicles from the survey.

Our survey revealed that the Tesla, Porsche, Audi, and Subaru brands remained in the top four spots, again this year. Some other brands were on the move. Lincoln climbed from 21st place last year to 12th this year, and Hyundai shot up to 13th from 24th, based on the strength of new and recently redesigned models.

Meanwhile, Ram, a brand that sells just pickup trucks and vans, took a huge tumble from last year’s 5th place ranking to 17th. Other brands that fell in the rankings include BMW (from sixth to 14th place) and Volkswagen (from 16th to a dismal 24th).

Even a brand with a low ranking can make a satisfying model—the Nissan Murano, for instance, is well liked by its owners despite Nissan being ranked second to last overall.

Without further ado, we present the car owner satisfaction brand rankings: 

Rank Brand Would Buy Again
1 Tesla 91%
2 Porsche 84%
3 Audi 77%
4 Subaru 76%
5 Toyota 76%
6 Honda 75%
7 Mazda 74%
8 Chrysler 73%
9 Chevrolet 73%
10 Lexus 73%
11 GMC 73%
12 Lincoln 73%
13 Hyundai 73%
14 BMW 72%
15 Ford 72%
16 Mini 71%
17 Ram 70%
18 Kia 70%
19 Mercedes-Benz 69%
20 Volvo 69%
21 Buick 68%
22 Cadillac 68%
23 Dodge 66%
24 Volkswagen 64%
25 Jeep 60%
26 Acura 58%
27 Infiniti 58%
28 Nissan 58%
29 Fiat 53%